Left-brain Versus Right-brain Myth

Table of Contents

Supporting evidence and origin of the myth

The Myth Busting Evidence


People are often taught that they can be either left-brained, or right-brained. Google has over 200 million results. Oprah is a “right brained” person. But there are no left-brain dominant or right-brain. The corpus callosum connects the two halves of the human brain. The task will determine which hemispheres are activated more often than others. Each hemisphere is assigned a task that controls movement and receives stimuli from the other side. Also, the left side of the brain controls movement and receives stimuli from the right. Our brains are highly interactive and have a complex exchange.

In a 2016 study, 78.5% accepted that hemispheric supremacy was valid even though other studies have shown cerebral functions require use of both the hemispheres. However, there is no evidence linking learning and hemispheric supremacy (Dundar-Gunduz, 2016). Brain-based learning also has an impact on the development of curriculum (Society for Neurosciences, 2009). Therefore, teachers might unknowingly include other neuromyths into their pedagogy. In many cases, neuroscientific expertise is lacking in educational institutions. This can lead to “brain-based” learning methods being adopted. But they don’t realize their pseudoscientific nature. This myth is especially dangerous in the education sector. One, students might be taught material in ways that aren’t effective. Since “right-brain/left-brain” teaching methods have not been validated, nor have supporting evidence (Bruer, 2002), it would then be completely erroneous to adopt a “right-brain/left-brain” teaching. This belief can restrict and limit people’s abilities and personality. This neuromyth may be internalized and can impact self-efficacy. It could even lead to self-fulfilling prophecies. Bandura 1994

The Myth of the Origin and Supporting Evidence. In the 1800s, Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke, two pioneers in the field of language production, demonstrated that comprehension and language production are controlled by two distinct brain regions. These were later named Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas. Broca’s and Wernicke argued that language is controlled by left-side brain regions. Robert Lewis Stevenson’s book “Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde” (1886). Waters, 2017, p. 58). He explored human nature’s dualities in his work. Dr. Jekyll had a logical right brain and Mr. Hyde had an emotional left brain (Waters, 2017).

The whole left-brain-right-brain obsession died down with the advent of the 20th century. This was until Roger Sperry’s split brain experiments in the 1960s, which earned him the Nobel Peace Prize. This myth was first created by participants with brain functions that were not typical. It was intended to learn more about epilepsy (Lienhard 2017). Sperry’s original work, which revealed the functional differences between the right and left brain hemispheres, is still valid. However the results have been exaggerated and misunderstood.

Sperry’s former student Michael Gazzaniga created the “Interpreter Phenomenon”. Gazzaniga observed his fellow colleagues observe patients when the left and right halves could not communicate. They were given an image in the right visual area that corresponds with the left-brain, and they were able explain it. Patients were not able point to similar objects when the image was shown to their left visual fields. Gazzaniga speculated that while the right brain was able to see the image it required the left brain to respond verbally. Gazzaniga therefore characterized Gazzaniga’s left hemisphere “inventive, interpreting” (Gazzaniga and 2015). If you don’t have a good understanding of brain processes, it is easy to misinterpret and simplify this statement. Sperry (1984), warns the public: “…experimentally found polarity in left-left cognitive mode is an idea that is easy to misunderstand. It is important to remember, however, that the two brain hemispheres are often used together in a normal intact brain.

It is absurd to say an individual is right-brained or left-brained. However, Perry’s and other studies have misunderstood brain lateralization to be linked with personality traits and mental states. This simplified view of complex neuroscience could be due to our human instinct to grasp things we don’t understand, and to accept simplified narratives in spite of warnings. The brain is not in constant tug-of-war. The hemispheres should be seen as systems.

Evidence Against MythBrain scans have shown no evidence that there is sidedness. Instead, activity occurred on both the left and right sides depending on the task. (Nielsen. Zielinski. Ferguson. Lainhart & Anderson. 2013). The study compared 3D images of more than 1,000 brains to determine the activity of each hemisphere using an MRI scanner. Both sides of brain were involved in cognitive processes. This supports the absence of selective simulation (Lindell (2011)).

It is widely believed that creativity is a “right brain” process. Another popular belief is that creativity is a right-brain process and that people who are “right-brained,” are more creative than their left-brained counterparts. Both sides of the brain can be involved in creative tasks (Runco 2004 p. 665). As previously mentioned, the “interpreter phenomenon”, or lack thereof, shows that creativity is not limited to the left hemisphere. This is especially true when logical tasks demand creativity. In fact, creativity can be rooted in logical reasoning. People in creative professions have greater interaction with both sides than people in noncreative fields (Gibson Folley & Park, 2009).

Brain lateralization refers to a complex and ongoing process in which different brain regions “specialize” in specific cognitive skills and behaviors. Although there are two hemispheres in the brain, they work together and interact with each other (Noggle & Hall 2011, 2011). Noting that there is no relationship between personality traits and laterization, it is important to remember. Therefore, no one can be fully left-brained or right-brained (Sperry 1961). It is possible to rewire a healthy brain’s lateralized functions, such language, into the other side of the brain, particularly if the patient are very young. An increase in latezization and plasticity can be seen before an activity is developed and then again after it has been developed (Ressel Wilke. Wilke. Lidzba. Lutzenberger. 2008). Children with brain damage to their left hemisphere can still live normal lives. Children with brain damage to their left hemisphere may still be able to develop language. Damage is not detected by age 7.

This simplistic idea that tasks are dominated only by one side is not supported by science. Even the popular lore that brains have a tendency to be more creative and logical than the other was not true. Each hemisphere plays a critical role in the execution of tasks. While some functions are more concentrated in one hemisphere than others, their overall function does not depend on one hemisphere as the hemispheres do not work in isolation. This myth is created because it simplifies brain function classifications into simple dichotomies (“left brain vs. right brain”), and ignores the complex working relationships of the brain.


Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed. Encyclopedia of human behaviour (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). Academic Press, located in New York. (Reprinted with permission of H. Friedman. (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).

Bruer, J. T. (2002). Avoiding the mistake of the pediatrician: How neuroscientists could help educators (and them). Nature Neuroscience (Supplement), 5, 1031-1033.

Dundar S. and Gunduz N. (2016). Misconceptions Concerning the Brain: Preservice Teachers’ Neuromyths. Mind, Brain, and Education, 10: 212-232. doi:10.1111/mbe.12119

Gazzaniga, M. S. (2015). Tales from both sides: A life in Neuroscience (1st Ed.) New York, NY: Ecco Press.

Gibson, C., Folley, B. S., & Park, S. (2009). Study of near-infrared and behavioral spectroscopy to examine enhanced divergent thinking and creativity among musicians. Brain and Cognition published a study in which 69 participants were examined and the results indicated that cognitive processes have an effect on the functioning of the brain (162-169).

Lienhard, D. A. December 27th, 2017 Roger Sperry’s split brain experiments (1959-1968). An encyclopedia of information on the Embryo Project is available. Retrieved from http://embryo.asu.edu/handle/10776/13035.

Lindell, A. K. (2006). In your right brain: Contributions of the right hemisphere to language production and processing. Neuropsychology Review published a paper exploring the effects of mental health disorders on the brain, looking at the neurological processes involved. The study compared the physical and cognitive changes that occur with different mental illnesses to understand how they interact with the brain. The findings showed that there is a complex relationship between mental health disorders and the brain’s physical and cognitive functioning. The paper concluded that further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of the neurological processes involved in mental health disorders.

Nielsen J.A., Zielinski B.A., Ferguson M.A., Lainhart J.E., Anderson J.S. (2013). Evaluation of the left-Brain/right-Brain Hypothesis with Resting State Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging. A study published in PLoS ONE in 2013 (8(8), e71275) found that… https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071275

Noggle C.A. Hall J.J. (2011) Hemispheres of the Brain. In: Goldstein S., Naglieri J.A. Edited by a team of experts, the Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development provides comprehensive coverage of the field. Springer Publishing, located in Boston, Massachusetts

Pines M. (1973). Our heads are home to two very different individuals. The Sunday Magazine New York Times. from https://www.nytimes.com/1973/09/09/archives/we-are-leftbrained-or-rightbrained-two-astonishingly-different.html

Reilly, J., Losh, M., Bellugi, U., & Wulfeck, B. (2004). Frog, where’s your frog? Children with Williams Syndrome, early focal injury to the brain and language impairments may have narratives. The relationship between brain and language was explored in a study published in Brain and Language, with the results of the research being reported in an 88th issue of the journal. The paper detailed how the two are interconnected, with the findings being spread across 229 to 247 pages.

Runco, M. A. (2004). Creativity. The Annual Review of Psychology recently published a review of 55 studies, examining various topics and exploring their effects on psychology. The review covered a range of topics, from psychological processes to the influence of environmental factors, and the results were published in a 657-687 page article.

Society for Neuroscience (2009. Juni). Neuroscience Research in Education Summit. The Promise of Interdisciplinary Collaborations between Brain Sciences, Education. The University of California, Irvine (UCI). June 22-24, 2009. http://www.ndcbrain.com/articles/SocietyforNeuroscience-EducationSummitReport.pdf

Sperry, R. W. (1961). Cerebral Organization & Behavior. Science, 133, 1749-1757. http://people.uncw.edu/puente/sperry/sperrypapers/60s/85-1961.pdf

Sperry, R.W. (1984). The divided brain, consciousness and personal identity. Neuropsychologia, 22, 661-673.

Waters, E. (2017). Waters, Elizabeth: The left-brain vs. the right-brain myth. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-left-brain-vs-right-brain-myth-elizabeth waters#discussion

The Effects Of Mental Health On Our Life

“Eat your vegetables! Exercise! Have a good night’s rest! Are mental and physical health equally important?

Mental health refers to our psychological, social, and emotional well-being. It influences how we think and feel. It influences how we deal with stress and make decisions. It is essential to have a healthy mental outlook at all ages, from childhood to adolescence and into adulthood. We often ignore our feelings and don’t believe this. It was only recently that I began to see the full impact of mental health. Let’s begin with my earliest memories. My mom took my sister and I to the local drive-thru safari when we were five years old. While this sounds like fun for most children, it wasn’t what my mom intended. In fact, the exact opposite happened. While it was great to see the exotic animals at a distance, I became terrified when the giraffe approached my car’s window. This moment has been with me my entire life. I laugh at jokes and receive occasional gifts that are giraffe-themed. This is just one example of the anxiety I experienced. As you might expect, my anxiety was not something I knew how to handle. I became more aware of my anxiety as I got older.

It was confusing to be anxious about a situation you don’t have to fear. Although I knew that giraffes were not cruel and that my mom would never let anything happen to us, I still felt fear. I only discovered how anxiety works and how to overcome it recently. Fear had taken control of my mind and controlled my thoughts and actions. It was an issue that affected my daily life. I needed to learn how to manage it. Although anxiety is something that I will always struggle with, it is something you must practice and it takes time. My mom, who was 7 years old, had decided to be a therapist for mental health. It helped me see things in a different way and helped me understand who I was. While we are not a foster care home, we do sometimes accept children who need a place to live temporarily when their own homes are no longer available. The experiences of these people taught me gratitude. My mom was a therapist, which helped me to be grateful and also helped me understand why I did what I did. I don’t mean that everyone is able to see how others react, but they aren’t able to understand why.

Mental health is a key component of all this. As I mentioned before, mental well-being includes our psychological, emotional, and social well being. It influences how we think and feel. It determines how we manage stress, and what choices we make. Everything we have experienced is the foundation for who we are, and how we respond to different situations. The why is behind the what. To make the best decisions, it is important to take care of your mental health.

The Effects Of The Stigmatization Of Mental Illness On The Society

Although mental illness is common, it affects 1 in 5 adults every year (“Mental Health Numbers”) and is very common. However, today’s society isn’t well-versed in its effects. Many people don’t understand mental illness, its symptoms, or the characteristics of people who have it. The stigmatization associated with mental illness is a result of this ignorance. Public stigma refers to the perception that society holds about mental illness, while self stigma refers to the prejudice that individuals with mental illness have against one another (Corrigan & Watson). Both types of stigma can be harmful. Self-stigma could lead to self hate and insecurity. People with mental illnesses can be stigmatized by the public. This can lead to prejudices, misinformation, and discrimination. The stigmatization of mental illness by society can be in many forms, often with disastrous results for individuals who have it.

Mental illness is often stigmatized in today’s society. In movies and on television, mental illness is often portrayed as something to be worried about and dangerous. Wonderland, which aired on TV in 2000, shows a schizophrenic man shooting and stabbing a pregnant woman (Tartakovsky). The Maniac Cook was a 1909 movie about a violent, dangerous mental patient. American Psycho perpetuates stereotypes that psychotic people are homicidal killers. Split was the 2017 movie that featured a dissociative identity disorder (also called DID or Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD)) as the main villain. It is shocking that mental illness is depicted in this manner in television and movies. The negative image of mental illness is also reflected in the news. John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health reports that 20% of American adults will suffer from some kind of mental illness. However, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers found that nearly 40% of the news stories about mental illnesses (Violence with Mental illness) are linked to violent behavior towards others.

Additionally, news stories often use “psychopathy”, “psychosis”, and “psychopath” interchangeably. “Psychosis” refers specifically to psychotic mental illnesses, while “psychopath,” refers to someone who has violent and antisocial tendencies; psychopathy is not always caused by mental illness. Professor George Gerbner claims that television has a “specific and measurable impact on viewers’ perceptions” of reality. Shewmaker. Gerbner spent nearly three decades studying television and the effect it had on viewers’ perceptions. Gerbner used “resonance” as a term to describe the “increased likelihood of having certain life experiences more often than they are because of viewing media.” This was despite the fact that there were many variables such as race, gender, age and socioeconomic status. Gerbner found that television has a significant influence on people’s perceptions and opinions of the world.

Negative portrayals or people with mental illness are often the worst exposure people have to mental illness. These people often don’t realize that the depiction of mental illness is false. Because they don’t know the truth, they believe the stigmatization and myths perpetuated by television and movies. This harmful and flawed view on mental illness is reinforced in our society by more people believing it. It can lead to misconceptions, misinformation, discrimination and stereotypes that are harmful and infected with mental illness stigma. There are many myths surrounding mental illness. Cheryl K. Olson is a ScD. According to her research, “Research suggests mental ill people tend to be victims more than perpetrators.” (Tartakovsky).

To be precise, they are more likely to commit violent crimes than the general population. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that only 3% to 5% of violent crimes are committed in the United States by people suffering from severe mental illness. Even though they are not more violent then the rest of society, mentally ill individuals are often stigmatized as “violent killers”, and “crazed lunatics”. Another myth is that teens with mental illness are just passing through. Two movies, “American Pie” & “Heathers,” perpetuate this myth by showing teens drinking/substance abuse as well as depression (Tartakovsky). “Thirteen,” depicts a main protagonist who doesn’t seek professional assistance despite self harm, substance abuse, an eating disorder, and other issues (Tartakovsky).

People might dismiss teenagers for bringing up their mental illness. They may also think that they are weak or lazy. Mental health problems can result from many factors. Mental illness isn’t just a mental condition. It can also be a physical alteration in brain chemistry and brain function. There is no cure for mental illness. One myth that mental illness perpetuates is that it doesn’t get better.

Monk portrays the main character as having Obsessive Compulsive Disease (OCD). Although his portrayal of OCD is positive and accurate, it never gets better despite him attending therapy (Tartakovsky). Otto Wahl Ph.D, University of Hartford Professor of Psychology believes that depictions only perpetuate the misperception that treatment and therapy are ineffective. Studies have repeatedly shown that people suffering from mental illness can improve their lives or even fully recover from it. The treatment can be either medication or therapy.

Even serious disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, can be successfully treated. Individuals with mental illness are able to function and contribute to society (Tartakovsky). Even if mental illness is severe, there are ways to improve the quality of life for people with mental illnesses. Mental health stigma is a major factor in society’s perception of mental illness.

People with mental illnesses are often stigmatized. This can have devastating and sometimes deadly consequences. The General Social Survey (GSS), conducted a 1996 study that administered the Mac Arthur Health module to 1444 Americans. It found that more than half of the respondents would not allow their family members to marry or work with anyone with a mental disorder. The discrimination also affected how people with mental illness should be treated. Participants believed that schizophrenia patients should be forced to receive treatment. However, recent research has not shown any efficacy in forcing mental health treatment (Corrigan & Watson).

A majority of people believe that those with severe or serious psychiatric disorders should be kept in mental institutions (Corrigan, Watson). Asylums and mental institutions have been known to abuse their residents and commit other atrocities. People being forced to enter them could be dangerous for their mental and physical health and even cause death. People with mental illness are more likely to be denied employment, affordable housing, and good jobs (Corrigan & Watson). “Overcoming Stigma” also shows that stigmatization can affect their ability to find and maintain these things. It can lead to harassment and bullying, insufficient understanding from family, friends, and coworkers, as well as a lack of insurance that fully covers mental health treatment. Many of the effects are internal and directly affect those with mental illness. Mental illness patients are often affected by low self-esteem or a negative self-image.

Patrick W. Corrigan of University of Chicago Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation & Chicago Consortium for Stigma Research along with the National Center for Biotechnology Information claim that people with psychiatric impairments will adopt stigmatizing thoughts and believe they are less worth because of it. Corrigan-Watson found that self-esteem and confidence can suffer, as well as one’s outlook on the future. Research has also shown that self-doubt or fear of being rejected by others can cause people to turn down life’s many opportunities (Corrigan, Watson).

Corrigan defines “low self efficacy” as “the expectation that you can successfully perform a particular act or behavior under specific circumstances.” (Corrigan). Mental illness stigma can lead to people with mental illnesses avoiding professional treatment or not seeking it. It was found that only 40% of those with mental illnesses received treatment in 2012, despite significant improvements in accessibility and quality (Corrigan Druss and Perlick). It is still a significant fraction of the 24.3% individuals with severe mental illness who sought help in 1990 (Corrigan Druss & Perlick).

Many people who seek treatment do not complete it. About 20% of patients abandon treatment before the end of their treatment, and 70% of them quit treatment within three visits (Corrigan Druss, Perlick). A nationwide survey was conducted by the Schizophrenia Patients Outcome Research team in 1998. The results showed that less than half of those surveyed reported receiving psychotherapy treatment. Only 10% received intensive case management. An analysis of 34 studies showed that nearly 40% of antipsychotic patients did not adhere to prescriptions. This is often due to stigma, both self and public. Stigma can make it difficult to feel brave or motivated to seek help. However, stigma can have serious consequences. Mental illness, especially if not treated early, can be made worse by shame, guilt and embarrassment. These can lead often to suicide attempts or feelings of helplessness.

The National Alliance on Mental Health, each death by suicide leaves behind more than 41,000 people. This leaves thousands of loved ones and friends to grieve the loss. Suicide is the 10th-leading cause of death for adults in the U.S. as well as the 2nd-leading cause of death for people aged 10-24. These rates have been increasing since then (Risk of suicide). Suicide risk is reduced when people at highest risk seek help. Unfortunately, this can be difficult to do due to stigmatization of mental illnesses.

Although mental illness is quite common, the majority of people have limited knowledge about it. A lack of understanding about mental illness and the implications for those who are suffering from it has led to stigmatization in many forms. People with mental illnesses often experience stigmatization that can lead to shame, embarrassment or avoidance of necessary treatment. Some even resort to suicide.

Childhood Obesity As A Nutritional Issue In New Zealand

Children’s obesity is a major nutritional problem that affects the well-being in New Zealand. Around 11% of children are obese, and 21% are overweight. New Zealand has the fifth-highest rate of childhood obesity. Explanation about nutritional issue To be considered obese one must have a high or abnormally low level of fat. The Body Mass Index (BMI) can be used to identify if an individual’s body is either underweight, too heavy, overweight, obese, or very obese. BMI is simply the person’s weight divided by their height in meters. The World Health Organization defines obese as someone whose bmi exceeds 30. One in nine New Zealand children are now considered obese. Three in ten adults are obese. New Zealand ranks fifth among the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development’s countries with the highest rates of childhood obesity. This is unfortunate considering the Organisation has thirty five other members. New Zealand’s child population is about 11% obese. The Ministry of Health reports that the rate of childhood obesity has risen from 8 percent in 2006/2007, to 12 percent in 2016/2017. Another 21 percent of obese children are also overweight. The issue affects everyone. Children, families, communities, and three ethnicities are all most affected by obesity. The issue affects children and families not only because of their weight but also the health problems that can result. Being overweight can lead to Type 2 Diabetes and high blood pressure. It is possible for someone to develop anxiety or mental health problems. A young child could develop secondary diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes. They may need support from their family. Gastric bypass surgery can be expensive and time-consuming. This is why it is only offered to those over 18 years old. Three different ethnicities are most affected by being overweight: Europeans, Pacificas and Maori. Maori and Pacifica individuals are more at risk for obesity than Europeans. Maori children are at risk of becoming obese at 18 percent and 29 percent respectively. Factors that are biological and environmental play a major role in their obesity. Environmental and biological factors can affect how people eat, how fast they digest food, and where they live. All of these factors can impact the likelihood of someone becoming obese or overweight. All of these factors can impact whether a child or another person is overweight or obese. The Child Poverty Action Group says that low-income families choose to buy food based upon what their children eat, how satisfying it is, and not on whether they are buying healthy food. Cheap food is often deemed unhealthy. However, if you compare the cost of a two-litre can of soda at $1 to that of a $2.50 litre of milk at $3.50, it is easy to see why so many people buy cheap food. We will examine the causes and major factors that led to this problem.

A child’s socioeconomic standing can influence what kind of food they eat. A child’s socioeconomic standing can impact the food items they get. For example, a child from a lower socioeconomic household may eat low-nutrition foods and fast food. Low socioeconomic families live in areas with high numbers of fast food restaurants. Mcdonald’s has been a top choice for fast food restaurants catering to children. Mcdonald’s offers food vouchers to their restaurant chain that will be given to children to sponsor their team. While parents may try to find healthy food, this isn’t always possible. People with low incomes will usually pay more for food that’s considered healthy. Dr Mike O’Brien from Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG), a spokesperson, said that “the link between poverty, nutrition. obesity, health and health is fairly well established now.” We must reduce poverty levels if we are to tackle these issues.

Low socioeconomic children often live in poverty areas, which means that their food is often not up to standard. Children’s energy levels can be affected by the food they eat. Junk food can give a child energy for the next hour but not enough to last them the entire day. Even though the food is healthy, it can help children have enough energy to complete actives and exercise. A child who isn’t able to exercise or play sports will find themselves glued to the TV. Their bed. They are not using the energy they get from their food and turning it into fat. With this constant trend, children become obese. Technologoy is something that all households have in common.

John M. Barry’s Description Of Accomplishments Of A Scientist As Expressed In His Book, The Great Influenza

John M. Barry writes that scientific research is a challenging field and requires creativity and courage to succeed. Scientists need to find new methods that are not available anywhere else. Although there are many obstacles at first, more information becomes available and the details become clearer. Barry uses many different rhetorical strategies to convey the message.

Barry discusses what characteristics a scientist should have at the beginning. Barry says certainty and uncertainty are two different things. He doesn’t mean that you can have certainty after a successful experiment, but that scientists should be confident in their abilities. This is used to illustrate the difference between a failed scientist and one who succeeds. Barry lists the qualities that “passion, patience and creativity are important for a scientist.” Barry uses enumeration to show that scientists are braver than they might seem. They are able to overcome uncertainty and get rid of self-doubt through their bravery. Barry continues to illustrate the difficulties associated with scientific procedure. Barry uses the metaphor that scientists are “almost clueless” and must venture into unknown areas to find the right techniques. . . It is impossible to bring order to it.” His metaphor shows how scientists are often unable to execute their goals. This example proves that science is much more complex than scientists believe. Barry uses contrast to illustrate that scientists can be taken into “an entirely new world” or thrown off the edge of a cliff by a single step. Contrast shows that while bravery is the basis of scientific research and can lead to failure or disaster, new experiments can easily go wrong.

Barry concludes the passage with a discussion about the rewards that researchers can receive for their dedication and hard work. Scientists will have to travel long distances in order to discover a new thing. Their colleagues will then “pave roads over” the paths they have laid. This metaphor depicts the dilemma researchers face. It would be easy to allow others to do the hardwork and choose the straight, ordered route. Barry says that not all scientists are able to deal with uncertainty. This fact makes the real researchers even more impressive. They are willing to take on tasks that only a few other people would be able to handle. Scientists can make new discoveries that will help everyone in science.

The Phenomena Of Synesthesia, Its Features And Treatment

Table of Contents

Synesthesia: The Symphony of Color

What is Synesthesia?

The Science of Synesthesia

Synesthesia: A Life of Synesthesia

Different types of synesthesia

Synesthesia in Daily Life

Synesthesia: The Symphony of Color

The basis of human interaction and life is built upon the five senses. All living creatures on the planet need to have sight, hearing and taste. Each sense has its own barriers that prevent them from working together, and one missing sense can cause a disruption in daily life. Although the senses may be separated, it is important to question whether a conjoining or loss of one sense would have any effect on the other. Could this cause problems or make things more efficient? This conjoining between senses is the key to Synesthesia, a rare neurological condition which affects about one in two thousand people. In this case, Synesthesia is not considered a hindrance.

What Is Synesthesia?Synesthesia is roughly defined as “an involuntary secondary reaction triggered by an initial sensory reaction, or in which the real perception of one sense is accompanied by a perception in another sense (As defined by SynesthesiaTest.org).” In effect, a reaction or perception of one sense, such as seeing, tasting or hearing, triggers a second sensory reaction in the mind of the affected that is both involuntary and abnormal. You can have any combination or five senses affected. Some of these strange reactions can be quite fascinating, even if they seem odd. Synesthetes might perceive numbers and letters as colors, taste different sounds, feel pain as assorted geometric shapes, and may also experience bizarre symptoms. Synesthesia is defined by a combination of sensory perceptions that are irregular, objective, simple, and involuntary, as well as triggers for reactions. In addition, synesthetes typically possess above-average intelligence levels, awful senses of direction, difficulties with differentiating lefts and rights, strong or photographic memories, obsessions with perfection or OCD in general, chronic headaches and occasionally even a stronger-than-average vulnerability to tickling.

Science of Synesthesia. While the exact cause of Synesthesia has not been identified, it is believed that synesthesia can be attributed to a mismatch in commands between different senses. Medical experts are still not able to fully understand the condition and don’t often refer to it as a disease. Synesthesia is relatively rare. It occurs in less than one percent of two thousand people. Synesthetic traits, sometimes called pseudo-synesthesia, are more common in children and adults. The astonishing 6:1 ratio of Synesthesia appearing in females to males is astounding. There are many ways for it to develop. Synesthesia can be caused by heredity or synesthetic genes. These genetics are more prevalent in left-handed individuals than they are for right-handed. Although synesthesia is rare, it can occur due to brain-affecting injuries and accidents. Synesthetic experiences may also be possible while taking hallucinogenic drugs. Synesthesia is a condition that develops early in life. In the case of synesthetes, it has been reported to occur as early as four months of age.

Synesthesia could theoretically disappear. Synesthesia can be lost if there are injuries to the brain or mismatched senses. Oliver Sacks’ research shows that Synesthesia is dependent on the synergy of the senses in order to transmit sensory experiences. Synesthesia may also be affected if the senses are damaged or altered. This can severely alter the way a synesthete lives. For a certain period. Many synesthetes might have more trouble with art fields if they had relied on synesthetic experiences. Life itself may even lose meaning, in some scenarios.

Life with Synesthesia Synesthetes view their condition not as something to be hindered, but rather as a gift. Synesthetes are known for being creative and this trait is part of Synesthesia. Many synesthetes end up becoming chefs, musicians, or artists because of their synesthetic experiences. Synesthetes often experience sensory overload and headaches as a result of their Synesthesia experiences. Synesthetes could feel “outofplace” at times due to their condition. Synesthesia, which is possibly the most difficult experience to relate with, can be hard for a nonsynesthete to see. Many synesthetes avoid sharing their experiences as they don’t realize that Synesthesia can affect their entire lives. As Synesthetic children often don’t see any abnormalities or unusual sensory mixing and matching, this is a prime example. Many believe that adults and children experience the same sensations.

There are many types of Synesthesia. The number of possible combinations of sensory triggers and sensory experiences that can result from Synesthesia is endless. This makes it difficult to keep up with the growing number of Synesthesia variations and branches. Grapheme Color Synesthesia: This Synesthesia involves the perception of numbers and letters using colors. It is the most widespread type. Grapheme Color Synesthesia lets you see the common word “typical” as a rainbow. These colors cannot be seen by synesthetes because they are not projected onto the words and letters. However, synesthetes can experience the sensations with their minds’ eye the same as one seeing an image. The same reaction happens with the four other senses, since synesthetes don’t audibly hear or taste any of their sounds or flavors. Other types include Object Personification Synesthesia that allows objects to assume certain characteristics and emotions. Music-Taste Synesthesia is where synesthetes can “taste”, various sounds, and music. Mirror Touch Synesthesia lets the synesthete feel pain or pleasure simply by watching. Color-Grapheme Synesthesia (the most common) is not the only type of Synesthesia. Any branch that deals with the senses is considered the rarest. Certain triggers may be associated with Synesthesia. For example, synesthetes might have a fixed association with certain colors, sounds and tastes. One synesthete might associate certain colors, sounds, or tastes with specific triggers (i.e.

Synesthesia in Daily Life Marilyn Monroe, Lady Gaga and Frank Lloyd Wright are all examples of famous synesthetes. Synesthesia can be used even by non-synesthetes. Synesthesia is used primarily as a literary device. Synesthesia in literature has a slightly different meaning than its original name. Literary Synesthesia brings together sensory experiences and senses in new ways. Instead of writing “the chocolat cake tasted soft and fluffy,” Synesthesia transforms that sentence into “the chocolate cream tasted of dark and pale moonlight.”

Synesthesia is best illustrated by personifying colors as temperatures. The lighter colors (such as yellows, reds, oranges, greens, pinks, etc.) are perceived as warm. The colors at the lighter end of the spectrum are perceived to be warm. While the darker colors (blues, purples, black, etc.) are perceived to be cooler. Feel cold or icy. This is not to confuse with personification. Personification refers to the process of attributing traits to inanimate objects, instead of sensory experiences. Yet, Synesthesia is often used alongside personification in literature. Many notable authors have used Synesthesia in poetry. Edgar Allen Poe’s poem “The Raven” uses Synesthesia for literary purposes. One example of such a stanza reads: “And that silken and sad, unpredicted rustling of each purple drape thrilled me. It filled me with terrors I had never felt before.” This stanza gives the purple curtain a “sad-and-uncertain” quality that is not possible under normal circumstances. Synesthesia is used more frequently in Emily Dickinson’s poem “Hope Is The Thing With Feathers”. The main example of such is found in one particular stanza. It reads: “And Sweetest in the Gale is Heard; and Sore Must Be the Storm, That Could Abash the Little Bird that Keeps So Many Warm.” This is an interesting combination of Synesthesia as personification. Synesthesia describes hope’s voice as that of a singing bird. While Synesthesia calls it “warm, sweet”, the values that are against cold are called “cold, sore”.

Synesthesia can be difficult for non-synesthetes to understand and is quite unusual from the standpoint of a synesthete. Synesthesia is classified as neurological but is not a condition. As stated repeatedly, Synesthesia does not cause any disease or disorders. Speaking personally as a Color-Grapheme, Sound-Color and Grapheme-Personification Synesthete, Synesthesia is a beautiful and unique way of perceiving the universe. Let me take a moment to confirm that Synesthesia is as fun as the essay describes. The world is constantly changing and adding new meanings to the already wonderful aspects of life. No medical expert can say the opposite. One will never truly understand the concept of blue until he hears it or tastes it.

Behind The Scenes Of The American Plastic Surgery Industry

Plastic surgery is one of the most lucrative and important industries in America, if it’s not the entire world. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), Americans spent $16 Billion on plastic surgery in 2016. This is more than any country in that time period. In the same year, over 200,000 teens were treated with plastic surgery. This has generated a lot controversy and caused many debates. Plastic surgeons are one the most well-paid professions. They make anywhere from $237,000 annually (starting salary) to $820,000 annually. Grand View Research predicts that the industry will grow at a rate of $43.9 billion if it continues to grow.

The skills and education required to be a plastic surgeon require a lot of dedication, commitment, and hard work. Cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgeons are specialists in the correction or improvement of the appearance of physical features. They can do this for either an aesthetic purpose or for a specific purpose. There are two types: reconstructive and cosmetic. Reconstructive plastic surgeons specialize in treating areas of the body that have been damaged by disease, birth defects or other developmental issues. Reconstructive surgeons often serve a purpose beyond aesthetics. On the other, cosmetic surgeons are more concerned with unnecessary procedures like breast augmentations and rhinoplasties. The requirements to become a plastic or reconstructive surgeon (reconstructive and cosmetic) are four years of undergraduate education. Also, you need to take the required courses like biology, chemistry, and physical physics. If you wish to become a medical doctor, it takes four years to complete your undergraduate degree. (Doctor of Medicine degree). (Doctor in Osteopathy). After graduating from school and being hired, you spend 5 years as a resident, focusing on plastic and general surgery. The American Board of Plastic Surgery and the American Osteopathic Board of Surgery are the most popular boards for plastic surgeons. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (USBLS), the future for plastic surgery is bright. There are 14% more job opportunities by 2026 for this specialty. A strong work ethic is essential for plastic surgeons. They also need to be highly dedicated. A typical plastic surgeon spends 50 hours per week standing, and most are satisfied with their job. A 2019 Medscape report found that 68 percent of plastic surgeons would consider retraining if the opportunity presented itself. 90% of plastic surgery professionals said they would choose a similar specialty. Medscape’s 2019 compensation report shows that plastic surgeons who work in larger practices are more likely to have lower overheads. While most plastic surgeons feel content in their job, only 52% (2019), believe that they receive fair compensation. Although it’s still not enough, it was higher than the 37% original 2014 report. It can take many years for a plastic surgeon to earn a decent salary. While the average salary was $382,000 in 2011, it has risen substantially since their sixth year of practice. They are preferred surgeons due to their ability to pass their boards. This is despite not being required. According to the same survey, 27% said that their most difficult aspect of their work was not being paid fair compensation.

In 2016, the cosmetic surgery industry was worth $16 Billion. The number has remained steady in subsequent years. BioSpace reported that plastic surgery was worth more than $16.5 billion in 2018. Breast augmentations are the most popular (and invasive) cosmetic procedure in America. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), there were 313,735 breast-augmentations in 2018. This is 4.4% higher than the previous years. The cost of breast augmentations in the United States ranges between $5,000 and $10,000, depending on which surgeon is performing them. Keep in mind that breast augmentations account for roughly $2.3Billion (13.94%) of all plastic surgery industry expenditures in 2017. Liposuction, which was 258,558 procedures, was the second-most common (invasive) cosmetic procedure. Although liposuctions cost less than breast augmentations, they still accounted for 4.7% of all money spent in 2018. Many people fly to Mexico, India, and Japan to receive plastic surgery at lower prices. Multiple sources claim that the United States has safer and better-quality surgeries, despite the higher price.

The U.S. plastic surgery industry is undoubtedly one of America’s largest industries. This is partly due to the impact of social media, celebrities and insecurities. The plastic surgery industry and the jobs that accompany it will continue to grow. This will mean that plastic surgery demand will increase. Since the industry’s job outlook has improved and there are more surgeries each year, it is unlikely that it will fail or decline. It is hoped that existing procedures will improve over time, making it less likely to have any problems. As I have stated, I believe the plastic surgery industry will grow, and maybe even surpass the rest of the U.S. industry.


The American Society of Plastic Surgeons is a professional organization devoted to the practice of plastic surgery. 12 April 2017 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery: More Than $16 Billion. Retrieved September 26, 2019, from https://www.plasticsurgery.org/news/press-releases/more-than-16-billion-spent-on-cosmetic-plastic-surgery

The American Society of Plastic Surgeons is a professional organization dedicated to plastic surgery. (2019). 2018 NATIONAL PLASTIC SURGRY STATISTICS. Retrieved September 26, 2019, from https://www.plasticsurgery.org/documents/News/Statistics/2018/plastic-surgery-statistics-report-2018.pdf

Medscape recently reported that (summarize main point of article). According to the 2019 Medscape Plastic Surgeon Compensation Report, plastic surgeons receive high salaries. Retrieved September 26, 2019, from https://www.medscape.com/slideshow/2019-compensation-plastic-surgeon-6011345#5

BioSpace. 10 April 2019 In 2018, Americans spent more than $16.5 billion on cosmetic plastic surgery. Retrieved September 26, 2019, from https://www.biospace.com/article/releases/americans-spent-more-than-16-5-billion-on-cosmetic-plastic-surgery-in-2018/

Abigail And Brittany Hensel’s Case: Separation Surgery

Brittany and Abigail Hensel were both born to parents who told them they wouldn’t live more than a few hours. This is a rare case. They have two hearts, two sets and lungs, and two brains. However, their births were marked by dicephalic parapagus. They were born with both one and two heads. They share all their organs from the waist down. Brittany controls their left side, and Abigail the right. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center conjoined births happen once in every 200,000 births.

First, let’s understand what conjoined-twins are. The Encyclopedia of Diseases and Disorders defines conjoined as identical twins in which the embryos of the twins didn’t separate before the birth. The condition is caused when the embryos fail to split by the twelveth day of the fetus’s developmental. Twins will only be born if the embryos of a fertilized person are able to separate before the 12th day. The interconnection of an infant’s body with the other embryos will become more difficult the longer they take to split. The University of Maryland Medical Center reports that 40-60% of conjoined siblings are stillborn. Only 35 % of them survive for more than a day. The survival rate for conjoined siblings is between 5 % to 25 %. Female siblings have three times the chance of being born alive than male counterparts. 70 percent of conjoined siblings are girls. Second, separation surgery is usually performed when the twins turn four months old. Waiting allows the infant’s bodies to grow. According to American Pediatric Surgical Association. There have been only 250 successful separations. This means that one twin survived long enough to be able to survive. Each separation procedure will be different because there are many types of conjoined Twins. Medscape, a leading medical information resource for doctors and medical students, is the best source of medical data for nurses, doctors, and other healthcare professionals. It shows that 74% conjoined twins have a connection at the abdomen, chest, or both. The surgeon must first break through the skin to separate the organs. After that, he/she must give enough organs to both bodies. After the organs have been cut, the surgeon will stitch them back together. It is dependent on the number of organs and how much they share, whether or not it can be done successfully, as well as how close they are. The decision to separate or not to seperate can lead to many ethical problems. Separating conjoined twins is easy if both of them are healthy. However, it’s not always possible. Separation could pose serious health risks in certain cases. This was the case with twins aged two years old who were connected at their heads. The two girls, who are not being named, shared their kidneys. Both of the twins did not benefit from the separation. Separation could be dangerous for their health. There was a 33% chance that both of them would survive separation surgery.

According to UH Case Medical Center Cleveland, the risky surgery meant that one of the twins would have to undergo a kidney donation or live-long dialysis. The other twin would then be at greater risk for brain damage. The girls could be at high risk of developing kidney disease and cardiovascular disease if they were left together. The parents must decide whether to put their lives at risk by separating the twins. Sometimes parents will have to decide to sacrifice one of their twins that is less likely to survive in order save the other. Understanding the process of creating conjoined siblings, separation surgery, and the ethical concerns that can arise is crucial to understanding their lives. Many conjoined Twins, like Brittany or Abby, lead happy and healthy lives.

Pros And Cons Of A Universal Healthcare

According to an American Journal of Public Health study, 45,000 people die each year due to lack of insurance. “Uninsured Americans of working age have a 40 percent greater death rate than their private-insured counterparts.” This number could drop dramatically if everyone had universal healthcare. These claims are supported by this Huffington Post story: “Georgeanne Koehler has spent dozens upon hours sharing the tragic news about her brother’s passing with anyone who will listen.” The tragic death of Billy Koehler, who suffered cardiac arrest when his defibrillator ran low on batteries, is a reminder of how anyone can die from lack of health care. Some countries have taken the initiative to create universal healthcare policies. Norway, for example, was the first country in the world to implement universal healthcare under a single-payer system. 16 years later Japan’s and New Zealand’s universal healthcare policies sparked a new wave. From 1945-1955 North Korea, Sweden, Belgium and Sweden each had a form of universal health care. Universal healthcare has contributed to better health and organized societies. 31 of 32 developed nations have universal health care, with the United States the only exception. If there are enough examples of what such a policy looks like, the rest might follow suit. Although it will be difficult for less developed countries to develop and sustain their populations, it is possible. Although some countries have already adopted universal healthcare policies, others would be able to do so with the help of the rest.

Universal healthcare is a positive outcome with many positive outcomes. However, there are potential problems that need to be addressed and ways they can be avoided. One is the issue regarding government spending. How much money would it take to fund universal healthcare? This issue can be avoided by creating a system that uses taxpayer money efficiently and effectively, but does not tax too much. In order to ensure universal coverage, taxes will need to be raised in many cases. Although taxes may be higher in this situation, it is not a bad thing. People would instead spend money on taxes, and thus save money in the long-term. Although it would be a significant change, it is important to see the future and how the policies can benefit the population. One example: The US government currently spends $7.65 trillion per year. However, if there was a universal healthcare program, $2.1 trillion could have been deducted and saved over time. The Balance defines universal healthcare as “a system that provides high-quality medical services to all citizens”. This is to provide a foundation of knowledge. All citizens, regardless of financial ability, can access it from the federal government. Universal healthcare’s main goal is to be universal. It must be accessible to all people regardless of their ability to pay. Universal healthcare is often misunderstood as being free, easy to set up, and the same across the globe. Universal healthcare does not cover all the needs. It is important to understand that universal healthcare does not cover all needs. Universal healthcare sounds uniform and the same everywhere. However, this is not true. It is possible for the system to vary depending on the place where it is being implemented. Different healthcare systems are designed to be most effective and efficient for each country. Forbes and Stratfor state that the structure of a healthcare system is affected by history, demographics, economics and politics. This includes who pays for the services and how they are provided. While maintaining a healthy health system is an important problem for all, it does not have a universal solution. It is not easy to create a universal health care system. To be effective and beneficial to the population, it must be well-engineered and organized. Universal healthcare’s purpose is to provide medical care that is accessible to all.

Another important distinction to make is between universal or non-universal healthcare. According to my research, there are three main systems currently in place: universal, universal, and two-tier. Single-payer healthcare, also known as ‘Medicare For All’, is the first. The system means that all citizens of a country or area receive the same healthcare services, including doctor visits, hospital care, eyecare, and medication. VerywellHealth estimates that only 17 countries have single payer healthcare systems. Two-tier healthcare means that the government offers both a basic level of healthcare and also provides secondary coverage to those who can afford it. Universal coverage and single payer healthcare can be combined in this situation. This approach has been tested in several countries including Australia, France and Israel. Universal coverage means that everyone has healthcare access. Although universal health coverage can take many forms, 32 countries currently have some form of universal coverage. Some countries in these 32 have 98% coverage. However, it is not considered universal coverage. However, 18 of these 32 countries offer 100% coverage and have complete universal coverage. These countries include Australia (Canada), Finland, France and Germany, Hungary. It is important to remember that universal coverage and single-payer systems are two different things, even though people often use them interchangeably. Even though single-payer plans generally offer universal coverage, some countries have achieved universal coverage using single-payer models.

Once you have an understanding of the topic, let’s talk about why universal coverage makes more sense than the current situation in certain countries. Universal coverage means that every citizen can have the healthcare they need. People who can’t afford insurance would no longer be unable to get the care they need. This would result in a more stable and resilient population. Universal coverage reduces healthcare costs as the government regulates the cost of medications and medical services. Because there is only one insurer and system for the population, government costs are lower. There are also no administrative costs. Universal coverage makes the system more efficient, consistent, and sustainably viable for the population. The final benefit of universal coverage is that children can learn healthy habits early on, which can help them live a healthier, more fulfilling life.

When discussing the benefits of universal health coverage, it is important to examine countries that have universal coverage policies and how they run their healthcare. The New York Times’ Austin Frakt and Aaron Carroll created an interactive article about different healthcare systems in the world. Some are universal while others aren’t. They had doctors, economists, and healthcare professors vote on which country has the best system of healthcare. A poll was also available in the article that allowed readers to voice their opinions. Canada (single payer universal), Britain and Singapore were the countries being compared in this article.

First, Canada won against Britain. The argument of “judges”, which was that Canada’s system was less efficient and had the exact same quality as Britain, was used to explain why the British system won. Britain won 76% of the votes, with 106,4899 people voting. The United States and Singapore were the next two pairings. The US offers healthcare that includes a mixture of all the above. Medicare is available for a select group of people. There is also private insurance through the workplace, private hospitals, as well private healthcare. Many millions are left without health care. Singapore offers affordable basic care. Singaporeans contribute about 37 percent of their earnings to mandatory savings accounts. These funds can be used for health, housing, education, or insurance. Part of the employer contribution is also available. The government plays a key role in deciding whether to invest in new technology. It controls the country’s medical students and doctors, as well as the amount of money they can earn. This contest was won by the United States (4-1) and 53% of the 89.943 voters. One judge said, “The problem with Singapore’s data is that it has higher rates and more severe strokes than the United States. The U.S. also has an innovative and dynamic health care system. It’s the engine for innovative diagnostics and treatments that Singapore and all other countries can take advantage of.

Next was Australia and France. Australia provides inpatient free care in public hospitals. The option of private, voluntary health insurance allows you to access private hospitals and other services that are not covered by the government. France has two options: compulsory health insurance (provided by employers) or voluntary health insurance (95%). 75% of doctors offer free healthcare. France won this battle 4-1. The judges also favored France (4-1). 80% of the 85.306 voters voted France. One judge stated that it provides nearly everything one could want and is more expensive than other countries. It’s a bargain compared to the U.S.

The final confrontation was between Germany and Switzerland. Switzerland’s universal system requires that everyone has insurance. It is sometimes compared the Affordable Care Act (ACA), however, it is a better system. Germany’s healthcare costs are determined by an individual’s income. Patients have many choices when it comes to doctors or hospitals. However, cost sharing is very low. It is lower for those who are low-income, and it is not available for services for children.

Blood Doping And Athletes

Athletes are prohibited from taking steroids or any other kind of drug. Athletes can dope just before the event. This is done to increase red blood cell counts. The oxygen is transported to the muscles more easily as the erythrocytes increase. This improves the athlete’s performance. Blood doping can be done in three main ways: blood transfusions, synthetic oxygen carriers and erythropoietin. Synthetic oxygen carriers refer to proteins and chemicals that are capable of carrying oxygen. These include perfluorocarbons or haemoglobin-based oxygen transporters (HBOCs), among others.

This could lead to cardiovascular disease. While synthetic oxygen carriers can be used to transport human blood in an emergency, there is a high risk of crossing blood types. A test to check for blood doping was developed in 2004. Blood transfusions tend to be a lesser known form of blood Doping. Homologous and autologous blood transfusions are the two most common types. An athlete’s blood is autologous if they use their own blood. The blood is stored in a refrigerated or frozen place and then transfused before the event. This procedure has many risks. The blood must not be frozen or refrigerated. Homologous transfusions are blood from the same person. This can lead to the transmission of viruses. Although blood transfusions have been used as a method of blood doping for decades, there is no way to tell if it is the homologous version. Erythropoietin is a naturally occurring hormone in humans that stimulates red blood cell production from the bone marrow. Red blood cells can travel to the muscle, increasing the body’s buffering capacity for lactic acid. EPO can also be used to treat anemia caused by kidney disease. EPO administered in blood doping form is not appropriate for athletes.

EPO may cause stroke, heart disease, or cerebral embolism. EPO may also be prescribed for autoimmune conditions. EPO was detected by a 200o test. It could be tested through urine and blood. In 2003, a urine test was created to detect EPO use. Blood doping should be banned because it affects what is supposed to happen naturally. Red blood cells should flow naturally to muscles when they are working, not be forced into doing so by some substance. There are many risks associated with this. Blood clotting, stroke, and heart attack are just some of the risks. Why should blood doping be permitted if it is against the law for athletes to use testosterone-producing steroids for muscle growth and other purposes?