Fastest Ways To Lose Weight

This generation is concerned about weight loss, and it should be. It is important to stay fit and active 24/7. Always be ready to take on new challenges. To achieve our weight-loss goals, we have a lot of options. Some work, and others don’t. Most of them are not effective for Indians because they are used to high calorie foods. This just goes to show how we need a change in the way we eat and live.

Never follow meaningless, air-filled diets. You will not benefit from any of it. You can lose weight fast by combining exercise with a healthy diet. Diet plans should be based on healthy eating. You can select the diet that suits you best. So many diet plans now include Indian ingredients. You can cook a delicious meal using ingredients that you already have at home.

The best way to lose fat is to put in some effort. The first thing we need to do is overcome our laziness. We can now learn how to lose fat from so many different sources. We have so many options. Youtube channels such as Eat More lose More show us how to do it the best way. Their Indian meal plans with 1200 calories are also a good option. It’s a great way to start your diet without having to eat anything foreign.

Avoid rushing into something. It’s not possible to go from pizza eating one day, to vegan the next. Let your body adjust. Plan a healthy diet that eliminates bad habits for your body. The fastest and easiest way to reduce weight is by doing this. If you go on diets and just skip meals, you’ll lose weight for sure but then it will come right back. You can lose weight by following a seasonal diet. We change our diets with the seasons, just as we do. To kickstart your diet, you can refer to the monsoon or summer diet plans on YouTube. Drink a minimum of 2-3 litres per day. Your body will become dehydrated without water and will not be able to perform its functions properly. As our bodies are 70% hydrated, we cannot ignore their needs. You do not have to just drink water. Make your own smoothies and drinks. It is important to stay hydrated.

Following a diet program is essential. Without planning, you would not know what to do next. Set milestones and goals for yourself, such as losing 5 or 10 kilograms by the end the month. You can lose weight by listening to what your body tells you.

Dieting is the key to losing weight. To achieve your goal, you must give it 100%. Each has its own significance. Our system is in need of a healthy diet and some exercise will only give it an extra push to be fit. You will achieve great things when you do both. Remind yourself why you’re doing what you’re doing. It will help you achieve your goal and make you healthier.

Aspartame And Its Bad Health Side Effects

Aspartame is not worth the zero calories

Companies have been promoting their products for decades as being more affordable and better to the consumer. The beverage industry was a prime example of this. Companies competed to create the best drinks. The beverage industry has been in a competition for decades with other companies to create the best drink. Coca-Cola, Pepsi Cola and other companies compete to have the drink with the least calories.

Aspartame has been the subject of controversy for many years, and in the last year especially. Aspartame can be found in diet soft drink. Aspartame is known to have many negative health effects. In an “Collective Evolution” article, it is stated that Aspartame can cause metabolic disorders and abnormalities of the digestive system. Aspartame is a non-caloric sweetener that has been linked to metabolic disease and digestive tract abnormalities.

The media can influence the way a consumer treats his or her eating and drink habits. Sadly, the media’s messages to consumers are not always accurate (what a surprise). There are many negative aspects of modern society. That is another topic. Many things have been portrayed as healthy by the media for many years. Cigarettes, for example, were once touted to be very healthy, but are now one of leading causes of lung cancer. In order to appear healthier and compete with other cola brands, these companies are actually harming their customers.

It’s nonsense to not do more research on the ingredients in beverages that are consumed daily by millions. It’s easy to understand that it is difficult for people to see long-term health effects. However, when aspartame has been shown to have negative effects on the body, then there should be an effort to replace the sweetener with something healthier. The media is also a major culprit in this nonsense. In the media there is a lot of emphasis on being healthier. But when this sort of thing happens, it’s only logical to stop advertising.

It wasn’t until recently that Aspartame was made public. Most consumers are unaware of what is in their food. This shows a poor understanding of scientific principles. It is scientific to remove the calories from a beverage in order to make it healthier. Chemical companies are required to develop compounds that will make a drink taste similar to its sugary counterpart but without the calories. Aspartame was likely created in this way. Aspartame is an example of this. The public doesn’t understand what it puts in its body and they trust these chemists so much that they will put it into their drinks. The public should be made aware of the ingredients they put into their body.

It is important to note that the lack of information about “bad science”, food chemistry, and alternative methods to improve the quality of foods for consumers is a major problem. The companies are not protected either. The point at which it is no longer possible to use natural methods and find an alternative, has passed. It’s important that society understands that there’s no “quick-fix” for being healthy. The ingredients in diet soda make it unhealthy and bad for people.

Aspartame, however, is only one of many sweeteners. For the rest, causing problems like this is a major red flag. The consumer should also take note. Nowadays, eating healthily is the key. It’s not profitable to eat your fruits and veggies and exercise three times a week. Hope that companies in the near future will be more concerned about the health and well-being of their customers than the profits they can make.

How Collecting Milk At Night Can Cause Insomnia And Anxiety

Recent research suggests that drinking milk from cows that were produced overnight could be an effective treatment for anxiety as well as insomnia. The Journal of Medicinal Food published this information earlier in the year. This may seem odd but drinking a cup of milk in the evening has long been known to aid sleep.

Night milk is different than daytime milk. Night milk is more sedate than daytime milk. In the study, mice that drank night milk showed less sedative effects than those that drank morning milk. Mice who were given night milk showed a greater tendency to explore new spaces, indicating a reduced level of anxiety. This milk is similar to diazepam that is usually used to treat anxiety. This night milk contains tryptophan as well as melatonin.

According to the report: “The test was conducted about an hr after treatment. Mice who were fed night milk had a significantly lower activity level than mice that received either water or day milk. Diazepam was given to mice that were least active. The number of mice that fell off a rotating platform during a twenty-minute period was used to measure balance and coordination. Mice who were fed night milk fell about four or five times on average, twice as much as mice who had been given day milk. Diazepam-treated control mice fell approximately nine times. Water-fed control mice fell only twice.”

These new techniques could transform the treatment of these disorders. Night milk could be used to treat anxiety and insomnia. Even though the entire research is not yet complete, it appears that these methods work.

This disorder has caused a high level of dependence on drugs. Some sufferers must take their medications throughout their lives. This problem could be solved by switching to organic measures. There are still some issues that may arise. Many people are allergic to milk products. The current treatment would be required for these people. It is also possible that milk will not work for humans. The mice used in the experiment may not have had the same effects on humans.

Although these flaws are possible, we won’t know until they happen. Drug companies could lose money if this was the case. As people wouldn’t need prescriptions, the drug companies would lose a significant amount of cash. The research may be stopped because the funds are cut drastically.

Today, science has a huge impact on our lives. New discoveries are made every day that enhance our quality-of-life. Every day, I am thankful for the new technologies and information being created. Many times, it is necessary to create alternatives in order to improve the existing methods. The medications are expensive, addictive and unhealthy. This research could be used to help resolve some of the problems.

Nutrition Review: Taste Receptors

A substance’s taste is produced when it reacts chemically to taste receptors (TRCs), located on taste buds, primarily in the mouth. The sensory system includes five senses, including taste. All organisms rely on taste perception as a major sensory input. Taste receptors are receptors that help to facilitate the sensation of taste. The taste receptors are on the membranes. The gustatory sense of mammals includes five basic flavors: sweet, bitter and salty.

In common speech, “taste”, or sensations from the mouth cavity, are often described as “taste”. But the biological definition is much narrower, and it only covers sensations transmitted by a specially defined anatomically-physiological chemosensorygustatory system. Food can also evoke other senses such as odor, temperature, touch and irritation. The non-gustatory components of food are perceived by different systems – olfaction and somatic sensation.

Animals use taste receptors to evaluate food. The sense is a powerful tool that can trigger a variety of reactions, from the innate behavioral responses such as attraction and repulsion to food to the joy of eating. Notably, one taste receptor expresses many different taste receptors proteins.

This indicates that each cell can recognize multiple tastes. Taste perception is also important for interoceptive (hunger and safety signals) and exteroceptive (vision, smell, and somatosensation), as well as generating behavioral responses.

Taste receptors protect the organism by preventing poisonous compounds from entering. Also, reports from recent years suggest that the proteins have functions other than detecting tastes. Airway smooth muscle tissue contains human taste receptors. Tastants and their effects on human bronchi are currently being investigated.

In mammals, the gustatory system includes taste receptors organized within taste buds that are located in gustatory papillae. Most taste papillae, which are divided into three different types — fungiforms, foliates, and vallates — are located on the tongue. A large number of taste papillae are located in non-lingual areas such as the oropharynx and larynx. TRCs have apical end exposed to the mouth and they react with water-soluble chemicals as taste stimuli. This interaction generates signals, which are then transmitted to the cerebral cortex via three branches of cranial nervous system: VII (facial),IX (glossopharyngeal),and X(vagus).

During the past few years, there have been tremendous advances in the discovery, characterization, and understanding of the taste receptors found in vertebrates. These receptors recognize sweet, umami, and bitter stimuli. Allelic variants found in the T1R/T2R gene can explain individual differences of taste in certain situations.

All animals depend on nutrients to survive. Toxic substances are often found in the sources of nutrition. Taste helps animals determine whether the food they are eating is healthy or harmful. Taste evolved probably to help animals select food that is appropriate for their body.

Currently, taste sensations of humans are classified into five different categories: salty, sweet (umami), bitter, sour and umami. Foods that have a bitter, aversive taste can often be toxic. Sour and bitter tastes are also signs of spoiled foods. Salts are the main stimuli for salty tastes, but other salts can also produce a salty flavor.

Salty tastes are a sign of mineral or sodium content. Sugars are the most common sweet taste stimuli, and they indicate that carbohydrates are present in food. L-glutamate has the highest umami content, which could indicate protein. The taste of lipids and calcium is also important, but there are some doubts about whether they have a similar flavor.

The existence and variety of taste qualities suggests that taste has a unique coding mechanism. This is done by special taste receptors. This hypothesis is supported by current data. Humans are able to taste bitterness, umami, or sweetness by using proteins in the T1R/T2R families. Salty and sour taste receptors are candidates.

Practical Applications of Taste ReceptorsThere’s a lot of interest in the development and modification taste receptors and stimuli for humans and animals. Food and drink can be made healthier without sacrificing the taste and patients are more likely to accept oral medication. A large market exists for artificial sweeteners and umamis, taste enhancers that increase the sweetness, umami and saltiness of food, bitterness blockers and pharmaceutical compounds.

A demand exists for the development of non-lethal repellents against wild animals (e.g. non-toxic chemical compounds with an aversive flavour). Lack of knowledge about the molecular identities of taste receptors has hampered the development of these products. The discovery of taste receptors will help to design novel taste-active compounds.

Allelic variations of taste receptors in humans can influence food perception, consumption, and choice. In turn, this can influence the nutrition of individuals and possibly predispose them to certain illnesses. Some alleles for taste receptors could be risk factors for disease. Genotypes are useful for identifying disease risk factors and recommending interventions. Some data are available to illustrate the role that taste receptors play in human health and nutrition. Alleles sensitive of the TAS2R38 human receptor are activated by PTC and PROP compounds that contain an N-C=S moiety.

Some plants humans consume contain compounds called glucosinolates. They also contain thiourea. A recent study has shown that TAS2R38 genotype affects the perception of the bitterness of glucosinolate-containing plants, such as broccoli, turnip, and horseradish. Allelic variation TAS2R38 can have a much wider effect on the food preference of children. A biomarker that could indicate alcoholism is the variation in taste receptors.

Ethanol has both bitter and sweetness components. Bachmanov’s et. al. (2003) report that variation in the sweet and bitter taste response is associated with ethanol consumption and perception. Bachmanov, 2002, found that mice with allelic variations of the Tas1r3 sugar taste receptor gene were more likely to consume ethanol. The genes that are responsible for the association between hedonic responses and sweet taste in humans are unknown. The higher sensitivity of the ethanol bitterness could protect against excessive consumption.

Taste receptors serve as a link between the inner and outer worlds. In the last few years, the discovery and understanding of T1R/T2R receptors has made tremendous progress.

Understanding The Views Of Joel Quartuccio And The Subject Of Mental Disorder

Joel Quartuccio said of Being as an Ocean: “I realized that hardcore was not for kids who had perfect lives”. He was right. What is the impact of punk/hardcore on teenagers? After I lost him in 2009, my music taste became more intense. I lost my grandfather in 2009 and have suffered from depression ever since. In my opinion, harder music helped me to deal with my depression symptoms more than anything else in my lifetime. In retrospect, the music that I was listening to during my teenage years may have contributed in part to me not being able understand what I was feeling. You can imagine sitting in a dark room sobbing and shaking your body. You can’t see the sun because it is behind the dark moon. The moon may be shining brightly, but you still don’t notice. You don’t know why you are sad. It’s just that you are. My favorite songs were my only source of comfort. Musicians are idolized by teens today. It doesn’t matter if it is artists or record companies, they understand this idolization. They use this to make money from these misunderstood, heartbroken teenagers.

Mental illness is stigmatized. In hardcore, mental illness is accepted as a normal part of life. To Write love on her arms, for example, set up tents during hardcore music festivals to educate the public about mental illness. This kind of outreach is important to normalize mental illness and to raise awareness. The bands involved in the music industry sometimes seem to condone unhealthy, alternative ways of dealing with mental illness. As I walk through summer festivals, I see kids wearing long black pants with multiple wristbands to cover their scars and cuts. It’s embarrassing for them and others to see, but they do it anyway because they are taught to ask bands to pay attention to them by handing out razor blades or saying “You’ve saved my Life.” These kids have been taught by bands and record labels that self-harm is okay because it’s about image. Mariana’s Trench’s “Say Anything,” a song with a theme of self-harm, is one I’m familiar with. At first, I didn’t understand the meaning of the song. I thought he meant to sing about the pain you get in your chest when your burdens grow heavier. It’s not long before you realize that you’ve been feeling unhappy for 436 consecutive days. In the lyrics, he states “I slit myself so that I could feel what I know to be true”. Teenagers who hear this song start to believe that it’s okay to do it too, because he is doing it. The majority of them are rebellious. When I was a teen, these lyrics only made me feel worse.

Record labels have a lot of say on what music gets released, how it’s presented and even when American Bandstand was introduced. In the era of “teen idols”, record labels offered a “sanitized, marketed version of rock-n-roll” (Delmont). We see Aretha Franklin’s music change from soul to pop when she moves from John Hammond, Atlantic Records and Jerry Wexler. The record labels don’t purify rock and roll in the hardcore scene. They know that the hardcore/punk style is very unique and they have collaborated even with retail companies in order to achieve it. Black Veil Brides are a group that I recently grew out from. My old love for their music was so strong that I thought I had been saved by it. Looking back at their past and seeing how they worked with two different labels, I understand why the band may have changed labels. StandBy Records’ first studio release, We Stitch These Wunds, is my personal favorite. Set the World On Fire and Wretched and Divine were their third and fourth albums. Black Veil Brides IV was released on Lava Records. Universal Republic Records owns this label. Set The World Fire is markedly different in sound, theme and feeling from its predecessor. Their third, concept-based album, sounds very much like their second. This band’s sound and their records released on different labels show the influence record labels have had on artists’ works. StandBy Records is an independent label, whereas Lava belongs to Universal Republic. Their album released by StandBy is completely unique and different from the three other albums. Their latest album, they claim, is their heaviest, most metallic release, but I think it’s a lighter, similar version of the first album they released on StandBy.

Motionless in White have been working with Fearless Records, their record company for six years. They refuse to release their new album via Fearless. Fearless has released a variety of albums by the band. Taylor Markarian’s very short piece, “How this decision will impact the sound the band’s upcoming recording” was well written.

Black Veil Brides, as we have already mentioned, has been releasing albums that sound alike, both musically and lyrically. Their success is solely due to their appearance or the consistency of their lyrics. There’s a song on every album that says you are not alone. You’re not alone. There are others who feel the same way as you. I think that a large part of the message comes not from the bands, but from the record companies. Rock and roll was pushed aside by the advent of hip-hop and pop to make room for its own music. The majority of teenagers are misunderstood and abandoned by their parents, but those who listen to punk and hardcore feel more so. Two songs on two albums by Black Veil Brides that are released under the same record label have the exact same message. Fallen Angels came from the 2011 album Set the World on Fire. The song is a representation of that feeling and provides teenagers with a safe place to escape and find people who will understand them. The song embodies that feeling of isolation and gives teenagers a place to escape through music with people who understand them. A song called “We don’t belong here” is also from Wretched & Divine. It has a message that’s obvious just by looking at the title. They use their lyrics to promote records. They know their fans are misunderstood youngsters. What better to make them buy more albums then to repeat the same messages in every album you release?

Elvis used sex appeals to sell his music and himself to his fans. Andy Biersack’s album sales have been used to sell records by the label. They made a concept album that included a movie and suggestive lyrics. The video gave girls the chance to gaze at Biersack and listen to him sing for an entire hour.

AFI or A Fire Inside is a group that I find very diverse. Their first album was released in 1995. What makes Black Veil Brides different? They are free to do what they please. In the early 1990s, they released punk albums. The sound of their music was authentically punk. Their first album was Answer That and stay Fashionable. It had songs like “Brownie Bottom Sundae”, a “Ny-Quil”, and “I Wanna Get a Mohawk, But Mom Won’t Allow Me to Get One”. The whole album felt amateurish. When comparing the first album of this band with the second punk release, the lyrics as well as the feel are mature. The lyrics changed from mohawks to more poetic ones. The idea of poetic lyric writing was still a new concept to him. However, there is a marked difference between “I Wanna Get a Mohawk”, a track from Answer That & Stay Fashionable compared to “A Singular Second” on Shut Your Mouth & open Your Eyes. Black Sails in the Sunset, their next album, is where they begin to change the sound. In “God called in sick today”, my favorite track from the album, there is a poetic example: “My heart brings tears to angelics’ eyes.” Let’s amend the classical story; close this so beautifully. They continued to write in this style for the five subsequent albums. Between 2000 and 2006, the band released three of their most popular albums: The Art of Drowning (also known as Sing the Sorrow), Decemberunderground, and Sing the Sorrow. The transition from Black Sails in the Sunset into The Art of Drowning was almost astonishing. The sound is still punk, but the band has grown as an artist. Crash Love, released in 2009, was the next big change in their sound. I was one of many fans who were very disappointed by the sound of Crash Love. The transition from acoustic music to electric was similar to Bob Dylan’s. AFI had almost been alienated by this new sound. It was a departure from the previous music. Was I to finally realize that they are now in the forties? It’s not like they were twenty-year old punks anymore. Their music evolved with them as they grew. They did not write what their fans wanted them to, or to sell records.

Hardcore music is not without its downsides. The punk community is designed to support and welcome those with a taste for unpopular music. In general, I’d say that they have succeeded. I’m generally welcome in the music community and scene. It’s clear that, when we dig deeper and look critically at what artists are doing and how they’re doing it, there’s more to the music scene than meets the eye.


According to National Osteoporosis Foundation (2017), bone tissue is alive and growing. It undergoes changes in different life stages. As the bones mature, they gradually replace the 300 soft ones at birth with hard ones ( Through the years, old bones or soft ones are removed through resorption and replaced with new bone (formation) by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (2016). According to National Institute of Arthritis Musculoskeletal Skin Diseases resorption, or the breaking down of bones can be used as a source of calcium and/or phosphorus for those who are deficient in these minerals. When the body has enough calcium and/or phosphorus in the diet, remodeling’s formation phase can help replenish skeleton reserves. Remodeling can help repair skeleton damage from repeated stress. For example, the stress that collegiate athletes put on their muscles and bones.

Remodeling is the process of removing and replacing the bone at the same location (osteoclast). It also allows the formation of new bones and the removal of the old ones from other sites within the bone. Modeling allows the formation of new bones at one site while removing old ones from another within the bone (osteoblast). (National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal Diseases and Skin Diseases 2016, National Institute of Arthritis). Modeling is the primary response to bone weakening that occurs in the older years. Although remodeling occurs most often in early childhood or early adolescence, it also occurs more frequently in the younger years. Healthy bones have well-connected bands or plates, which provide strength. When osteoporosis is present or the bones are dysfunctional, these bands become thinner and weaker.

The rods are no longer connected to the bone and do not contribute to its strength. Bone formation is most prominent during childhood and teenage years. Bones continue to grow, becoming heavier, denser, and larger. Bone resorption is not as strong until bone formation reaches peak mass (maximum strength and bone density). This occurs usually in the mid-20s. The result is that bone resorption starts to gradually exceed the formation of new bones. Unfortunately, osteoporosis is only a problem when the bone resorption or replacement happens too slowly. Osteoporosis (also known as “porous” bone) is the structural deterioration of bones that can lead to fractures of the wrist, hip and spine. Viewed under a magnifying glass, healthy bones look like honeycombs. In osteoporosis, however, the spaces and holes in a honeycomb become much larger. Weak bones and brittle bones can be a sign of osteoporosis. These bones have an abnormal tissue composition and are weak and fragile. Furthermore, bones that lose their bone density become more fragile, weaker, and more likely break. Osteoporosis occurs when bones lose their strength and density due to the body producing too little bone. This disease is severe enough that bones can break as a result of a simple slip, sneezing and even bumping up against a table, chair, etc. (National Osteoporosis Foundation 2017.

According to International Osteoporosis Foundation estimates, osteoporosis is caused by low bones mass and affects approximately 44 million U.S. adults aged 50 or older. Osteoporosis and low bone mass affect 55 percent (44 million) of adults 50 years old or older. Osteoporosis is most commonly associated with hip fractures, wrist fractures and spine fractures. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Dermatological Diseases, 2016. Osteoporosis may even result in a permanent reduction of height. The spine is affected by osteoporosis, causing a reduction in height. A senior who falls and breaks a hip due to osteoporosis is 20 percent more likely to die of complications within a single year of the injury.

According to National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases in 2016, age, gender, ethnicity and history of family are all osteoporosis risk factors (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases 2016. The age is a factor in osteoporosis because it increases with age. Ethnicity can be a factor, as statistics show that Caucasian and Asians women are at a higher risk of osteoporosis compared to African American and Hispanics women. Families with a history or osteoporosis may also be at risk. Gender plays a major role in the progression of osteoporosis. Women, who have smaller bone structure than men, are more likely to get osteoporosis.

Diet also plays a major role in osteoporosis. Around 99% calcium is located in bone. It plays an important structural role for bone. A person’s risk of developing osteoporosis can be increased if they consume too little calcium or vitamin D ( 2017, 2017). Flynn’s study found that insufficient calcium consumption during the first years of life can negatively impact bone growth. Calcium requirements are based on the bone-building and -maintenance needs that vary with age. The demand for dietary calcium increases during rapid growth periods, such as during childhood, adolescence and pregnancy, and also in older age groups (Flynn).

According to an updated study of the role played by vitamin D, calcium absorption is impossible without vitamin D. A lack of vitamin D prevents the body from producing enough active vitamin-D, calcitriol. In both the young and older population, higher Vitamin D levels correlate with greater bone density. Vitamin D plays a vital role in the health and growth of bones. A lack of vitamin D can lead to soft or fragile bone, which may cause osteoporosis. An adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium is necessary to prevent the development of soft or fractured bones. These are known as rickets and ostemalacia respectively in adults and children.

Hermann Grid’s Review

Ludimar Hermann discovered the Hermann Grid. It was characterized by “ghostlike blobs” at the intersections where a grey grid is displayed on a background of black (Spillmann&Levine 1971). Baumgartner believed this effect is caused by inhibition in retinal neurons called ganglions. Hermann’s grid can only provide a biological description of visual perception. If we want to fully understand visual perception, then we should also look for an explanation that includes the environment.

There is more light at the intersection’s center than there is in the field of receptivity located on the other side. In the intersection, more light means there is greater lateral inhibiting. Lateral inhibition prevents action potentials spreading from neurons that are excited to their neighbors in the lateral directions (Yantis and Steven, 2014). This contrast allows for greater sensory perception. This is due to the fact that the receptive zones in the central retina are much smaller and therefore cannot cover an intersection.

Likewise, Hermann’s grid is only a partial explanation of visual perception. Schiller & Tehovnik (2015) point out three flaws. The illusion remains the exact same even when our receptive areas remain the same. Second, by distorting or skewing the grid even by 45 degrees you can greatly reduce or eliminate the illusion. Thirdly it is not so simple to arrange retinal ganglions and the corresponding receptive zones as Baumgartner had assumed. Parasol cells have much larger receptive centers and surrounds than Midget ganglions. The Hermann grid is not explained by Baumgartner’s localized processes because of the complex arrangement between excitatory centers, and inhibitory surrounds that operate at different distances across the 2-D image.

We can therefore conclude that the visual processing process cannot be explained only by lateral inhibitory inhibition. Other explanations must exist. Cognitive explanations claim that we process information visually through cognitive processes including attention and recall. James Gibson’s and Richard Gregory’s work are two of the most important cognitive explanations.

James Gibson’s bottom-up hypothesis suggests that the mechanisms of perception are innate and have evolved over time. Learning is not necessary. It is clear that perception would be necessary to survive, as the environment without it would be extremely dangerous. In order to avoid predators or to determine which fruits are poisonous and safe to eat, our ancestors must have had the ability to perceive.

Gibson’s Theory began with the idea that the pattern or array of light that reaches the eye contains all the information needed for visual perception. The optic array is a way to get unambiguous data about objects’ layout in space. The flow changes of the optical array provide information about the movement type. The flow will move either from or toward a certain point. If you move towards the point and the flow seems to come from it, then it is likely that you are. You are moving away if the optic array appears to be moving towards the object.

Gibson’s Theory is a strong one because he can apply it to many different situations. If you paint a line on the runway to guide pilots in the right direction, it can gradually get smaller or wider. Gibson’s concept is applicable to all species. It highlights the information richness within an optical array.

It is, however, a reductionist theory as it tries only to explain the perception of an object in terms that are based on its environment. It is well-established that the brain, and especially long-term memories, can affect perception. Richard Gregory’s work shows that we use our pre-existing visual schemas to process information.

Richard Gregory asserted that perception relies on top down processing. As the stimuli from our surroundings are frequently ambiguous, additional information is needed to interpret them. Gregory performed the Hollow Face test to prove his hypothesis. He explained how we reconstruct present information using previous experience by rotating a Charlie Chaplin face. We know that a nose is prominent on a normal-looking face, so we subconsciously transform the hollow face to a face with a protruding nose.

The Necker Cube provides proof that Gregory’s claim about perceptions being ambiguous often is true. The cube’s orientation can change suddenly when you stare at the cross on it. It can be unstable. One physical pattern could produce two perceptions. Gregory claimed that the object appeared to change orientation because of two equally plausible hypotheses, and was unable to choose between them. It is impossible for the appearance to change due to bottom up processing when the perception alters, but there are no changes in the sensory information. The perceptual hypothesis must be used to determine the distance and nearness of objects.

Social Anxiety disorder: My Experience

Table of Contents

Social Anxiety: A Guide for Living (Essay)

Social Anxiety

Social anxiety triggers

Affected Groups

Reduce anxiety

In the end,

Social Anxiety: A Guide for Living (essay)

Social situations can make it difficult to cope with social anxieties. It is common for people to feel anxious when they have to interact with others. Social anxiety disorders can intensify these fears. In my essay on social phobia, I will discuss my personal experiences. I find that I feel uncomfortable even at the worst times. For example, at family reunions or parties. To avoid having to interact with people, I once climbed up a tree. Although this may seem odd to some, social anxiety disorder sufferers often do it. Even my family has seen me hiding during Christmas dinner. The fact that I am speaking in front a big audience makes me uncomfortable. Many people don’t understand how social anxiety disorder can impact a person.

Here’s what I have to say about social anxiety. I’ll start by explaining what social anxieties are. The majority of people who have social anxiety were treated as children. Montana claims that individuals still suffering from social anxiety are afraid of being punished and rejected if something is said or done wrong. Social anxiety can intensify and cause terror.

Social anxiety can lead to delusions. They may imagine the possible consequences of doing something wrong. John Montana from Positive Health says that while such delusions may not be caused by paranoid-schizophrenia, they can still cause a person to lose their connection with reality. In this case, the person most likely has another mental disorder such as bipolar or depression. People who suffer from social anxiety tend to be uncomfortable around others. But the worse it gets, the more awkward a person feels. It is important to note that social anxiety can be a very serious disorder. Let’s look at the symptoms of social anxiety and see who is most affected.

Social anxiety triggersLet’s first look at what causes social anxiety. Anxiety can be triggered by a person speaking in front of a crowd, eating, drinking, or being in the spotlight, or giving a report in a group or asking a question.

A person may experience sleep problems, muscle tensions, blushing and shaking, as well as increased heartbeats, when they are exposed to the situations mentioned. Thomasson & Psouni state that people who exhibit these symptoms could be impaired in their academic or work-related activities. Even their quality of life is low. They are also more than likely not to marry or get divorced. Also, it is associated with drug and alcohol abuse.

Social anxiety is most prevalent in certain groups. As we’ve already said, anxiety and alcohol have a connection. Social anxiety is the main reason people drink. Social anxiety is not present when college students are intoxicated. Alcohol reduces anxiety due to its physiological and psychological effects. Students continue to drink alcohol because of this. This can be a problem because college students are at greater risk of engaging in hazardous drinking habits, like playing drinking games. Ham and Hope concluded that alcohol problems were not directly related to social anxiety.

Affected GroupsSocial anxiety can be a real problem for students in college. Women are also affected by it. SAD is more common in women than in men. Several studies examined the reasons why women have a greater tendency to develop social anxieties. Several of these studies found that “specific factors psychosocial may influence risk factors in the development social anxiety among women”. Sociocultural values, such as gender role expectations and sociocultural practices, influence our self-perceptions in relation to social environments. One example is that women who are successful in their careers should be more confident in the workplace and more caring when they’re in casual settings. It’s said, however, that women who are more assertive tend to be disliked less than men. It’s true that social anxiety is higher in women than in men. But there are ways around it. Last but not least, I’ll share some tips on how to relax.

Relaxation can help reduce anxiety. Relaxation allows you to see the world in a different way. Uncommon Help says that looking around you can help reduce anxiety, because it focuses your attention on your environment rather than yourself. When you’re experiencing anxiety, breathing is also important. Social anxiety can be managed by breathing. Breathing helps calm the person down physically and mentally.

A third way to reduce anxiety in social situations is by practicing mindfulness. A state of non-judgmental awareness is called mindfulness. Mindfulness is a secularized version of Buddhist meditation.

ConclusionAs a result of all the above, social anxieties can be reduced if you relax your body. You should now be more informed about social anxiety and can support others who experience it.

A Comprehensive Report On The H1n1 Influenza Virus

Table of Contents


An opening statement

Causative Agent

The problem’s magnitude

Predisposing Factors

People at higher risk for infection include

Moving information from one place to another

Patient’s symptoms

Prevention and Control


In conclusion



The H1N1 Swine influenza virus is a strain of influenza A that differs in two surface glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (or neuraminidase) and hemagglutinin. It is thought that the novel virus spreads through respiratory particles. Coughing and sneezing are some of the ways it can be transmitted. After the infection, the symptoms can vary from mild upper airway illness to serious complications including pneumonia resulting into respiratory failure or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The novel H1N1 strain was first detected in Mexico in 2009. In June 2009, WHO declared that the 2009 pandemic had begun. This pandemic had a tremendous impact. The pandemic affected not only the health of the community but also other aspects such as economics and social. There are many measures to control the H1N1 virus, both non-pharmacologically and pharmacologically. The need for more extensive research on this novel viral strain has prompted this paper to highlight the scope of the issue, the transmission potential, and predisposing variables. It also discusses the many aspects of clinical presentations, prevention, as well as control. IntroductionH1N1 Swine Flu is an infection which is widespread in pigs all over the world. This is why it is called swine fever. H1N1 is a respiratory disease that can affect pigs. Swine flu can sometimes be transmitted to people by pigs. Swine influenza viruses can potentially cause human infections if the virus changes its antigenic characteristics by reassortment.Influenza A pandemics such as those which occurred in 1918 and 2009 can occur when transmission from person to person becomes successful. A devastating pandemic of influenza caused by H1N1 flu virus, or Spanish flu, occurred in 1918. It was the deadliest pandemic ever recorded. In 2009, a swine/human influenza outbreak (H1N1) which spreads from pigs into humans started in Mexico. It spread rapidly throughout the world. This new “pandemic”, though not clear when it occurred, was caused by a three-fold influenza A strain carrying the swine genome, Eurasian Avian, and Human strains. The causative agentThe H1N1 virus is an orthomyxovirus. It develops virions of 80-120 nm diameter.

* The envelope proteins hemagglutinin(HA) and neuraminidase(NA)

* Viral RNA polymerases, including PB2, PB1, PB1F2, PB1-F2, PB1-F2, and PB

* Matrix protein M1 andM2

* Nonstructural NS1-NS2 proteins (NEP), essential for efficient viral replication.

H1N1strain is different from other influenza A (H1N1, H1N2) strains because of the surface glycoproteins HA and NA. Hemagglutinin binds the virus and red blood cell together. Neuraminidase assists in the transfer of viral particles between infected cellular. The problemH1N1 first appeared in Mexico, on 18 March 2009. In just a few weeks, 30 countries were affected by the outbreak. By June 11, WHO had declared that the 2009 flu pandemic was underway by raising the alert level to phase 6, as 74 different countries reported nearly 30,000 H1N1 infections. By July, the virus had spread to more than 122 nations with 134,000 lab-confirmed infections and 800 fatalities. The global nature of travel and trade has allowed swine-flu to be spread in the same way as other pandemics took six months. By December of 2009, more 208 countries reported swine fever cases. By March 2010, more than 17700 deaths were reported in lab-confirmed cases. In the United States as of mid February 2010, 59 million illnesses were reported, 265 000 hospitalizations occurred, and there were 12 000 deaths. Importantly, the estimate of mortality was likely underestimated due to its reliance on statistics attributed to excess mortality for all causes and not laboratory-confirmed patients. According to Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Health on 30 December 2009, there were 15.850 laboratory confirmed cases, and 124 deaths. The pandemic was not only a medical disaster, but also a social disruption. Airlines reported losses of tens or even hundreds of millions. Mexico’s international air traffic decreased by 40% after travel restrictions were implemented in some countries to try to slow or stop the spread of the disease. The closing of US schools for four weeks on average cost 47 billion dollars (0.3% GDP), and resulted in a 19% reduction in key healthcare staff. Predisposing variablesOverall, those who are more likely to be infected by this virus are:

Children under 5 years of age.

Children under the age of 19 and adults older than 65 years old who have been on long-term Aspirin therapy.

People who have a compromised immune system due to diseases like AIDS.

Females currently in gestation.

People who suffer from chronic diseases, including diabetes, heart diseases, neuromuscular disease and asthma.

TransmissionThe most common way to transmit the virus is by droplets from coughing, sneezing or direct or indirect contact of respiratory secretions. Handling surfaces contaminated with virus (fomites), inhaling aerosols of bacteria into the mouth or nose. Fomites (e.g. Toys for children can spread disease by contact with them. Infectious airborne aerosols contain large droplets as well as droplet nuclei. The diameter of large respiratory droplets is >5-10?m. They are responsible for short-range transmission. The droplet nuclei have a diameter 5 mm and are responsible for the long-distance (airborne) transmission. Rapid spread has been observed in the population and especially in places like schools where there are many people. Clinical PresentationThe symptoms are similar to seasonal influenza (H1N1): fever, sore throats, malaise, headaches, myalgias, arthralgias, fatigue, and cough. Many patients, particularly in the pediatric group, had diarrhea and vomiting. This is not something that happens with seasonal flu. The data suggests that the H1N1 infection has a broad clinical spectrum. It can range from mild upper-respiratory tract symptoms to serious complications including respiratory failure, acute respiration distress syndrome (ARDS), and multi-organ dysfunction. The symptoms of diarrhea, which are reported by 20%-50% percent of patients do not need to be hospitalized. In certain countries, viral pneumonia is the main cause of hospitalization. Microbiological evidence for secondary bacterial and fungal infections has been detected in fatal events…In the USA, more than 70% of hospitalized patients had conditions that put them at a high risk of complications. According to surveillance data, individuals with chronic diseases and pregnant women are more likely to have severe or complicated flu illness. With this pandemic virus, an additional factor of risk has emerged: obesity. Incubation periods for the pandemic influenza virus are also similar to seasonal influenza. They range between 1 and 7 days. Ill children may shed the virus up to 7 day after the illness began. However, some groups of children such as immunocompromised or young infants can have longer viral transmission. The infectious period of influenza for prophylaxis is 1 day prior to fever onset and 24 hours following fever end. In order to control and limit the spread of influenza, developing countries use a variety of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. Non-pharmacological actions include: personal cleanliness, washing of hands with soap, covering of the mouth and nasal passages while coughing or wheezing. Close contact quarantine and mandatory isolation. The health worker should collect the samples using biosafety equipment. Pharmacological measures include antiviral (oseltamivir & zanamivir) drugs. It is recommended that these be administered within 48 hour of symptom onset. This drug should also be given as a priority to those patients at high risk of serious illness. Health workers should receive antiviral prophylaxis for up to six weeks with oseltamivir or four weeks with zanamivir. Close contacts and patients who do not receive prophylaxis are also advised to start treatment early with an antiviral medication. Few countries offer the vaccine. It is a very effective way to reduce influenza-related morbidity and death. The A/California/07/2009/H1N1 strain is the basis for this vaccine. It comes in both live attenuated and an inactivated version. Single doses are sufficient for children older than 9 and adults 18-64. Children under 10 will need two doses, separated by 21 days. Live attenuated vaccines are only available to persons between the ages of 2 and 49 who are not pregnant and immunocompetent and do not have chronic diseases. It is contraindicated for children under 5 years old with asthma, those taking long-term aspirin and anyone in close contact immunosuppressed individuals. Inactivated vaccination is not recommended for those with severe egg allergies or other vaccine components. The H1N1 subtype is an influenza virus that causes upper and lower respiratory infections. As of 30 December 2009, there were 15850 laboratories in Saudi Arabia, with 124 fatalities. It spreads through the droplets from coughing and sneezing. It can cause gastrointestinal inflammation, as well as a fever, sore throat and headache. In addition to antiviral treatment, prevention measures include mouth, nose and hand coverings when sneezing and coughing. Live attenuated or inactivated vaccinations come in two different types. Cites

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An Argument In Enhancing The Care Quality In A Nursing Home

Improvements in the quality of care at nursing homes are needed

Many people put their elderly parents in nursing homes to receive the care they need. Most people are unaware that sending their loved-ones to a facility can put them at risk. A two-year time frame saw elderly abuse reported at 30% of nursing homes across America. These places are a breeding ground for different forms of abuse, such as physical, financial, and emotional. All of these are not always good reasons. To stop the abuse of elderly patients, these facilities need to improve and follow their legal obligations more closely. Nursing homes and other elder-care facilities need to improve their quality of care because many elderly patients are treated inhumanely. Even though they may be old, they are still human beings and should receive the treatment they deserve.

In these facilities, there are a variety of forms of abuse, but the three most prevalent are financial, emotional and physical abuse. These activities can be carried out on their loved one without them even noticing. The most common form of abuse that is reported in nursing care is physical abuse. This is because it can be seen immediately. Physical abuse can be any form of abuse, including kicking or hitting someone, restraints that are excessive, medication withholding, or the administration of unnecessary dosages. These can include bruises, fractures, and side-effects from medication. The emotional abuse is less visible. Emotional abuse can be classified as verbal or physical abuse. Although emotional abuse’s signs are much less obvious than those associated with physical abuse it is not any less abhorrent or common. Financial abuse of the elderly is one form of manipulation that leaves no other evidence than a trail of paper. They are often confused, and may not even know what’s going on in their financial situation. This is a vulnerability that people exploit. Because people are so willing to exploit and take advantage elderly people, they become vulnerable. Most common financial abuses against the elderly are scamming, healthcare fraud, and theft of credit card accounts. People will often convince elderly people to buy things they don’t need, such as medical services (Landers). 2-4). Inhumane treatment of people is not acceptable, particularly in care facilities where elderly people are meant to feel secure and cared for. These situations are completely unjustified and unnecessary. There is no excuse for treating people this way, but there are some reasons. Three main reasons are: a staff that is uncaring, a family that has been forgotten, and profit. The nursing home staff is the main cause of abuse against the elderly. Some nurses in nursing homes feel that they do not get enough compensation for their work and take it out on their patients. David Ruppe says, “The reimbursements for nursing assistants are low in comparison to the needs of residents, so they are paid around $7-$9 per hour.” 19). This is because the amount received is far below the amount deserved. Some nurses steal from their patients out of desperation and frustration. The nurses may be at fault for this behavior, and it is true that they do behave in this manner, but only when there are no visitors. Most often, elderly relatives will only visit their families sparingly. They are the main targets. Nursing staff treat patients in a way that is unprofessional and negligent. The companies who own these facilities, not the people involved directly, such as untrustworthy employees and absentee family members, should be held accountable for their negligence. In America, 69 percent of nursing home are run to make money. It is money that’s being saved and made, not the patients. It is unlikely that abuse occurs as frequently if there was more security or people watching for these obscure behaviors. The owners will do this if overcharging elderly patients and not buying them extra supplies makes more money for the owner. Many non-profit facilities use volunteers and fundraisers in order to provide care for patients. 27). The reasons for poor treatment in nursing homes is not an excuse, but it’s the most common reason. It’s possible to stop this behavior by following the legal rules that nursing homes must follow.

It is possible for these abuses to happen because federal and state laws do not specify the exact nature of their provisions. Nursing Home Reform Act is one law that states nursing homes have to “provide services and activity in order to maintain or attain the highest practicable mental, physical, and psychological well-being for each resident according a written plan.” 1). The basic law has been broken in nursing home abuse. The nursing home staff often violates a few federal regulations. The facility must be staffed with enough nurses, according to the first federal regulation. Nursing homes often have nurses who are overworked and stressed out by the sheer number of patients they care for. More funding would allow these facilities to hire more employees and solve or assist in many violence problems. These issues would allow for other regulations to be adhered to, such as one that says nursing homes are required to “Prevent deterioration in a resident’s abilities to bathe and dress, groom and transfer, ambulate and toilet, eat and communicate” (FNHRSL). 2). If patients are mistreated, they will lose the ability of completing many tasks independently, whether or not they are in severe physical pain. No one should be unable to maintain cleanliness or communicate with others. This regulation states that the dignity and respectful treatment of patients must be maintained. 2). It is impossible for an elderly person who is abused, threatened, or robbed to maintain their dignity and respect. Charles Ornstein describes, for example, how a nursing assistant is accused of sharing a Snapchat photo of a nursing home resident on the toilet. 19). This kind of embarrassment is terrible for anyone. Even if it were an elderly patient being “taken in” by the nurses. Anyone would find it embarrassing to be unable to take care of themselves. Abuse is even worse. Losing dignity can lead to mental illnesses, such as anxiety and depression. According to American Psychological Association’s (APA), mental disorders like these can cause death or suicide in older people. 11). In nursing homes, the nurses and various other factors are responsible for causing many people to lose both their dignity and their mental well-being. These federal regulations and laws may seem morally correct but many institutions don’t follow them. This results in the elderly being treated inhumanely.

Even though this abuse occurs in many nursing homes across the United States it is important to note that not all of them are involved. Nursing homes are often viewed as having many positives by individuals. In some cases, a constant supply of care can be very useful for those patients who cannot care for themselves. 3). These residences offer a structured routine that is easy for patients to adjust to. As people age, they rely more on repetition and schedules to help them remember and accomplish daily tasks. Many patients can benefit from following a strict daily schedule. However, they do not like the fact that it limits their freedom (Wood). 5). There is also a large amount of socialization and free time in nursing homes run correctly. There are also presentations or games for residents. When you reach an age where you are no longer able to walk around and talk with people, it is vital that your social life is active. It is not good for people to lie in bed all day watching cable. 7). There are many benefits to the care that seniors receive in a nursing home. Not all nursing facilities are reliable and people should be aware of what to look for.

If a family member is better off in a care facility, that’s what you should do. Nursing homes are not all horror stories. There are nursing homes that operate for profit and put the money before the elderly residents. It is important to be aware of what abuses could occur. Abuse of the elderly is most often reported in three forms: financial, emotional, or physical. It is mainly because there are no caring staff members or family present. Profits for companies that own these facilities also play a major role. These obscene and illegal acts continue despite laws that require these facilities to comply with. It is not even noticed that these patients’ human rights are being violated. The issues could be easily fixed. Nursing homes and elder care facilities need to improve their quality of care because many elderly people feel inhumanely treated. Many nursing homes show their patients the utmost respect and care. However, there are still many that treat these people like animals or as objects. Although the elderly may not be young, they still deserve to receive respect and care.