The Central Venous Pressure (cvp)

The central-venous pressure (CVP), which is located in the central vessels near the chest, is a pressure measurement. It is used to estimate right ventricular pressure. The central venous blood pressure is not a true measure of blood volume, but it’s often used as a rough estimate. The central blood pressure in the vein cava is affected by the right-heart function as well.

Central venous pressure can detect under-filling or over-distention before any clinical symptoms are evident. Normal circumstances result in an increased heart output from an increased venous returns, but without a significant change to central venous. In the case of a obstructed pulmonary circulatory system or poor right-ventricular function, the right atrial blood pressure will rise, which in turn causes a rise to central venous measurement pressure. In contrast, a patient suffering from hypovolemia may have a reading within the normal range of central venous due to reduced venous flow or widespread vasodilation. This will cause a decrease in right atrial blood pressure and central arterial pressure. The central venous level must be set at the same level as the right atria in both cases. The fourth intercostal space is typically the same level as the mid-axillary axillary ridge when the patient lies in a flat position. The same position should be used for each measurement of the central venous blood pressure. It is more useful to look at trends than just one reading. The trend of measurement is inaccurate if the central vein pressure is not measured consistently.

Pulmonary arterial pressure (PA) is the blood pressure measured in the pulmonary vein of the heart. The right ventricle releases blood into the lung circulation to create pulmonary artery pressure. This is an opposite force of production by the heart’s right ventricle. As the heart contracts during ventricular-systole and blood is ejected, the volume of pulmonary blood increases. This in turn stretches the walls of the artery. As the heart begins to relax, or ventricular dialole, blood continues flowing from the arterial pulmonary into the circulatory system. The smaller arteries (arterioles) are the main resistance vessels. They regulate pulmonary blood pressure by changing their diameter.

pulmonary artery catheters today are placed according to the individual patient’s needs and staff qualifications. Patients with severe cardiogenic lung edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome, who are hemodynamically unstable, as well as patients who have undergone major thoracic surgeries or who have septic shock, may be candidates for pulmonary catheters. A sensor is used to measure the heart rate and pulmonary blood pressure. The sensor has a size similar to a penny and two thin loops attached at either end. The sensor is inserted into the pulmonary artery. The sensor is usually not felt and will not interfere with daily activities, or any other implanted devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators” (Abbott n.d.).

Pulmonary wedge capillary pressure can be used to estimate left atrial pressur. It is possible to measure left atrial blood pressure by inserting a capillary into the right atria and then puncturing the interatrial septum. This method, however, is not commonly used because it can cause damage to this septum as well as harm to patients. “Measuring pulmonary capillary valve pressure is helpful in diagnosing the severity and degree of left ventricular dysfunction. Both conditions elevate left atrial tension, and consequently the pulmonary capillary-wedge pressure. Left atrial blood pressure is also elevated by mitral regurgitation or stenosis of the aortic valve. These pressures above 20 millimeters mercury can cause pulmonary edema, which could be fatal to the patient.

Reduction Of Inhibitory Control In People With ADHD

Inhibitory control is a way to inhibit attentional or behavioral responses that are prepotent. Barkley (1997a), according to Barkley, inhibitory controls are the foundation of executive function and one of its most important cognitive functions. The brain uses this to correct a behavior. It allows one to refrain from saying something inappropriate when they want to, or to think positively and not negatively. The laboratory has explored inhibitory skills in great detail using experiments including ‘The Marshmallow Experiment. In both situations, you need to resist the urge to eat the marshmallow and read the word. Many psychologists have suggested that the behaviour symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are caused by a lack of inhibitory control.

This essay seeks to define and explain Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder before analysing research and examining existing theories for the inhibitory control deficiencies in ADHD. ADHD is an impulsive, hyperactive and inattentive disorder. According to research conducted in westernised cultures, between 3 and 5% of school-aged children exhibit hyperactive and impulsive behaviours that are severe enough to warrant a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder. This is not all. Many children exhibit similar behaviours, but do not meet the criteria for ADHD. These are the most common behavioural issues in children (Barkley 1998). DSM-IV recognizes three types of ADHD: combined, predominantly hyperactive and predominantly inattentive. The combined type requires that a child display six out of nine hyperactivity symptoms and six out of nine inattention symptoms. The child only needs to meet one of the two criteria to be classified as having ADHD. Barkley (1997)a proposed the most comprehensive model. This model focuses on ADHD as a problem with inhibitory control. Barkley also believes that inhibition is the key to all executive functions. He says that one must first inhibit a response to allow for other executive functions to take place. Barkley argues that children with ADHD are more likely to have difficulties with executive functions. He identifies five of these: internalisation of speech, self-regulation, affect, motivation, and arousal. Therefore, he organised his model in a hierarchical way with a reduced inhibitory control at the top, leading to a reduction in other executive functions below it, all leading to an account of the deficits associated with ADHD, as presented in the model as Motor Control/fluency/syntax. Barkley’s Model is by far the best known, however there are many competing theories.

Gray’s Theory of BIS/BAS was presented in 1982. This is an interplay between three systems in neuropsychology: The behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BIS), non-specific arousal, (NAS). The BAS is conditioned to respond to stimuli in order to receive a reward or to relieve punishment. The BIS, on the other hand, responds to stimuli conditioned to experience novelty and punishment. The NAS reacts to punishment and pain without condition, and it is a flight or fight system. Gray (1982), at first, used it to explain anxiety problems that he claimed were due to an overactive BIS. Quay explained the ADHD deficits in 1997 by stating that an underactive BIS was responsible. In 1997, Quay used this theory to explain the deficits in ADHD, suggesting that they are associated with an underactive BIS. 1993). Gray’s explanation of this finding is that BIS is an inhibition system which is tied to punishment and reward. This is a completely different concept to Barkley’s definition of inhibition. Nigg (2000) presents a taxonomy on inhibition that refers to BIS as motivational inhibition, while Barkley’s definition is executive inhibition. It is important to make this distinction, because it means that BIS function can only measured under motivational circumstances.

Rothbarts effortful-control theory is a theory which explains the link between ADHD and a deficit of inhibition. This study evaluates two systems, fear/behavioural inhibiting system and effortful-control. The fear/behavioural system has a modulatory effect via its connections to other systems. This system suppresses reward-oriented behaviours. A system of active control, effortful control regulates itself. It is a way to inhibit a dominant reaction in order to perform a subdominant one. A weakened fear-regulation could lead to impulsive behavior in ADHD. This is because the person cannot control their behaviour by using the system of effortful controls.

Numerous studies have been conducted to support these theories. These studies show that ADHD sufferers are less inhibited. In most cases, the research is based Barkley’s deficit model for ADHD, which shows a lower level of executive inhibition along with a lack of other executive functions. It has been found that ADHD patients have lower levels in impulse control than the control groups, when tested with stop-signal or go/nogo tasks. Dunn, also conducted two studies. Poor inhibition has been linked to hyperactivity (1998). The interference control was examined – an example of a control which helps to suppress or suppresses irrelevant responses or habits. With external distractions on tasks, ADHDers do not show any difference from control subjects. The performance of those with ADHD is significantly lower than that of those without ADHD when distractions are introduced into the task.

Barkley’s model has many other executive functions that children with ADHD may not be able to perform. Children with AHDH show significant differences when it comes to non-verbal work memory. This was demonstrated through memory tasks for specific locations. Mariani & Barkley (1997) showed that ADHD patients had a problem with verbal working memories by repeating digit spans. Children with severe ADHD have been shown to delay internalisation. Barkley’s model of executive dysfunction is further supported by research that shows significant differences in ADHD and controls when it comes to self-regulation of emotion and verbal proficiency. It is also important to examine the studies in which no significant differences have been found, for example with regards to verbal or working fluency. In addition, it’s important to evaluate Barkley’s theory by considering the studies that did not find significant inhibition group differences.

A number of biological studies have been conducted to support the idea that ADHD is different from the norm. According to the localizationist theory, inhibition is associated with different areas of frontal cortex. This pattern of development is also correlated with the maturational changes of the frontal cortex. Neuroimaging structural and function studies in ADHD subjects show a wide range of abnormalities. Functional imaging studies reveal that ADHD is characterized by a delayed maturation of the cerebral cortex.

I believe that based on the discussion and points that I made, that research in theory, experimentation, and neuroscience generally supports that inhibition is greatly reduced among people with ADHD. There is debate about how this deficit occurs, and further research in this area would be beneficial.


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Hermann Grid’s Review

Ludimar Hermann discovered the Hermann Grid. It was characterized by “ghostlike blobs” at the intersections where a grey grid is displayed on a background of black (Spillmann&Levine 1971). Baumgartner believed this effect is caused by inhibition in retinal neurons called ganglions. Hermann’s grid can only provide a biological description of visual perception. If we want to fully understand visual perception, then we should also look for an explanation that includes the environment.

There is more light at the intersection’s center than there is in the field of receptivity located on the other side. In the intersection, more light means there is greater lateral inhibiting. Lateral inhibition prevents action potentials spreading from neurons that are excited to their neighbors in the lateral directions (Yantis and Steven, 2014). This contrast allows for greater sensory perception. This is due to the fact that the receptive zones in the central retina are much smaller and therefore cannot cover an intersection.

Likewise, Hermann’s grid is only a partial explanation of visual perception. Schiller & Tehovnik (2015) point out three flaws. The illusion remains the exact same even when our receptive areas remain the same. Second, by distorting or skewing the grid even by 45 degrees you can greatly reduce or eliminate the illusion. Thirdly it is not so simple to arrange retinal ganglions and the corresponding receptive zones as Baumgartner had assumed. Parasol cells have much larger receptive centers and surrounds than Midget ganglions. The Hermann grid is not explained by Baumgartner’s localized processes because of the complex arrangement between excitatory centers, and inhibitory surrounds that operate at different distances across the 2-D image.

We can therefore conclude that the visual processing process cannot be explained only by lateral inhibitory inhibition. Other explanations must exist. Cognitive explanations claim that we process information visually through cognitive processes including attention and recall. James Gibson’s and Richard Gregory’s work are two of the most important cognitive explanations.

James Gibson’s bottom-up hypothesis suggests that the mechanisms of perception are innate and have evolved over time. Learning is not necessary. It is clear that perception would be necessary to survive, as the environment without it would be extremely dangerous. In order to avoid predators or to determine which fruits are poisonous and safe to eat, our ancestors must have had the ability to perceive.

Gibson’s Theory began with the idea that the pattern or array of light that reaches the eye contains all the information needed for visual perception. The optic array is a way to get unambiguous data about objects’ layout in space. The flow changes of the optical array provide information about the movement type. The flow will move either from or toward a certain point. If you move towards the point and the flow seems to come from it, then it is likely that you are. You are moving away if the optic array appears to be moving towards the object.

Gibson’s Theory is a strong one because he can apply it to many different situations. If you paint a line on the runway to guide pilots in the right direction, it can gradually get smaller or wider. Gibson’s concept is applicable to all species. It highlights the information richness within an optical array.

It is, however, a reductionist theory as it tries only to explain the perception of an object in terms that are based on its environment. It is well-established that the brain, and especially long-term memories, can affect perception. Richard Gregory’s work shows that we use our pre-existing visual schemas to process information.

Richard Gregory asserted that perception relies on top down processing. As the stimuli from our surroundings are frequently ambiguous, additional information is needed to interpret them. Gregory performed the Hollow Face test to prove his hypothesis. He explained how we reconstruct present information using previous experience by rotating a Charlie Chaplin face. We know that a nose is prominent on a normal-looking face, so we subconsciously transform the hollow face to a face with a protruding nose.

The Necker Cube provides proof that Gregory’s claim about perceptions being ambiguous often is true. The cube’s orientation can change suddenly when you stare at the cross on it. It can be unstable. One physical pattern could produce two perceptions. Gregory claimed that the object appeared to change orientation because of two equally plausible hypotheses, and was unable to choose between them. It is impossible for the appearance to change due to bottom up processing when the perception alters, but there are no changes in the sensory information. The perceptual hypothesis must be used to determine the distance and nearness of objects.

Social Anxiety disorder: My Experience

Table of Contents

Social Anxiety: A Guide for Living (Essay)

Social Anxiety

Social anxiety triggers

Affected Groups

Reduce anxiety

In the end,

Social Anxiety: A Guide for Living (essay)

Social situations can make it difficult to cope with social anxieties. It is common for people to feel anxious when they have to interact with others. Social anxiety disorders can intensify these fears. In my essay on social phobia, I will discuss my personal experiences. I find that I feel uncomfortable even at the worst times. For example, at family reunions or parties. To avoid having to interact with people, I once climbed up a tree. Although this may seem odd to some, social anxiety disorder sufferers often do it. Even my family has seen me hiding during Christmas dinner. The fact that I am speaking in front a big audience makes me uncomfortable. Many people don’t understand how social anxiety disorder can impact a person.

Here’s what I have to say about social anxiety. I’ll start by explaining what social anxieties are. The majority of people who have social anxiety were treated as children. Montana claims that individuals still suffering from social anxiety are afraid of being punished and rejected if something is said or done wrong. Social anxiety can intensify and cause terror.

Social anxiety can lead to delusions. They may imagine the possible consequences of doing something wrong. John Montana from Positive Health says that while such delusions may not be caused by paranoid-schizophrenia, they can still cause a person to lose their connection with reality. In this case, the person most likely has another mental disorder such as bipolar or depression. People who suffer from social anxiety tend to be uncomfortable around others. But the worse it gets, the more awkward a person feels. It is important to note that social anxiety can be a very serious disorder. Let’s look at the symptoms of social anxiety and see who is most affected.

Social anxiety triggersLet’s first look at what causes social anxiety. Anxiety can be triggered by a person speaking in front of a crowd, eating, drinking, or being in the spotlight, or giving a report in a group or asking a question.

A person may experience sleep problems, muscle tensions, blushing and shaking, as well as increased heartbeats, when they are exposed to the situations mentioned. Thomasson & Psouni state that people who exhibit these symptoms could be impaired in their academic or work-related activities. Even their quality of life is low. They are also more than likely not to marry or get divorced. Also, it is associated with drug and alcohol abuse.

Social anxiety is most prevalent in certain groups. As we’ve already said, anxiety and alcohol have a connection. Social anxiety is the main reason people drink. Social anxiety is not present when college students are intoxicated. Alcohol reduces anxiety due to its physiological and psychological effects. Students continue to drink alcohol because of this. This can be a problem because college students are at greater risk of engaging in hazardous drinking habits, like playing drinking games. Ham and Hope concluded that alcohol problems were not directly related to social anxiety.

Affected GroupsSocial anxiety can be a real problem for students in college. Women are also affected by it. SAD is more common in women than in men. Several studies examined the reasons why women have a greater tendency to develop social anxieties. Several of these studies found that “specific factors psychosocial may influence risk factors in the development social anxiety among women”. Sociocultural values, such as gender role expectations and sociocultural practices, influence our self-perceptions in relation to social environments. One example is that women who are successful in their careers should be more confident in the workplace and more caring when they’re in casual settings. It’s said, however, that women who are more assertive tend to be disliked less than men. It’s true that social anxiety is higher in women than in men. But there are ways around it. Last but not least, I’ll share some tips on how to relax.

Relaxation can help reduce anxiety. Relaxation allows you to see the world in a different way. Uncommon Help says that looking around you can help reduce anxiety, because it focuses your attention on your environment rather than yourself. When you’re experiencing anxiety, breathing is also important. Social anxiety can be managed by breathing. Breathing helps calm the person down physically and mentally.

A third way to reduce anxiety in social situations is by practicing mindfulness. A state of non-judgmental awareness is called mindfulness. Mindfulness is a secularized version of Buddhist meditation.

ConclusionAs a result of all the above, social anxieties can be reduced if you relax your body. You should now be more informed about social anxiety and can support others who experience it.

A Comprehensive Report On The H1n1 Influenza Virus

Table of Contents


An opening statement

Causative Agent

The problem’s magnitude

Predisposing Factors

People at higher risk for infection include

Moving information from one place to another

Patient’s symptoms

Prevention and Control


In conclusion



The H1N1 Swine influenza virus is a strain of influenza A that differs in two surface glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (or neuraminidase) and hemagglutinin. It is thought that the novel virus spreads through respiratory particles. Coughing and sneezing are some of the ways it can be transmitted. After the infection, the symptoms can vary from mild upper airway illness to serious complications including pneumonia resulting into respiratory failure or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The novel H1N1 strain was first detected in Mexico in 2009. In June 2009, WHO declared that the 2009 pandemic had begun. This pandemic had a tremendous impact. The pandemic affected not only the health of the community but also other aspects such as economics and social. There are many measures to control the H1N1 virus, both non-pharmacologically and pharmacologically. The need for more extensive research on this novel viral strain has prompted this paper to highlight the scope of the issue, the transmission potential, and predisposing variables. It also discusses the many aspects of clinical presentations, prevention, as well as control. IntroductionH1N1 Swine Flu is an infection which is widespread in pigs all over the world. This is why it is called swine fever. H1N1 is a respiratory disease that can affect pigs. Swine flu can sometimes be transmitted to people by pigs. Swine influenza viruses can potentially cause human infections if the virus changes its antigenic characteristics by reassortment.Influenza A pandemics such as those which occurred in 1918 and 2009 can occur when transmission from person to person becomes successful. A devastating pandemic of influenza caused by H1N1 flu virus, or Spanish flu, occurred in 1918. It was the deadliest pandemic ever recorded. In 2009, a swine/human influenza outbreak (H1N1) which spreads from pigs into humans started in Mexico. It spread rapidly throughout the world. This new “pandemic”, though not clear when it occurred, was caused by a three-fold influenza A strain carrying the swine genome, Eurasian Avian, and Human strains. The causative agentThe H1N1 virus is an orthomyxovirus. It develops virions of 80-120 nm diameter.

* The envelope proteins hemagglutinin(HA) and neuraminidase(NA)

* Viral RNA polymerases, including PB2, PB1, PB1F2, PB1-F2, PB1-F2, and PB

* Matrix protein M1 andM2

* Nonstructural NS1-NS2 proteins (NEP), essential for efficient viral replication.

H1N1strain is different from other influenza A (H1N1, H1N2) strains because of the surface glycoproteins HA and NA. Hemagglutinin binds the virus and red blood cell together. Neuraminidase assists in the transfer of viral particles between infected cellular. The problemH1N1 first appeared in Mexico, on 18 March 2009. In just a few weeks, 30 countries were affected by the outbreak. By June 11, WHO had declared that the 2009 flu pandemic was underway by raising the alert level to phase 6, as 74 different countries reported nearly 30,000 H1N1 infections. By July, the virus had spread to more than 122 nations with 134,000 lab-confirmed infections and 800 fatalities. The global nature of travel and trade has allowed swine-flu to be spread in the same way as other pandemics took six months. By December of 2009, more 208 countries reported swine fever cases. By March 2010, more than 17700 deaths were reported in lab-confirmed cases. In the United States as of mid February 2010, 59 million illnesses were reported, 265 000 hospitalizations occurred, and there were 12 000 deaths. Importantly, the estimate of mortality was likely underestimated due to its reliance on statistics attributed to excess mortality for all causes and not laboratory-confirmed patients. According to Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Health on 30 December 2009, there were 15.850 laboratory confirmed cases, and 124 deaths. The pandemic was not only a medical disaster, but also a social disruption. Airlines reported losses of tens or even hundreds of millions. Mexico’s international air traffic decreased by 40% after travel restrictions were implemented in some countries to try to slow or stop the spread of the disease. The closing of US schools for four weeks on average cost 47 billion dollars (0.3% GDP), and resulted in a 19% reduction in key healthcare staff. Predisposing variablesOverall, those who are more likely to be infected by this virus are:

Children under 5 years of age.

Children under the age of 19 and adults older than 65 years old who have been on long-term Aspirin therapy.

People who have a compromised immune system due to diseases like AIDS.

Females currently in gestation.

People who suffer from chronic diseases, including diabetes, heart diseases, neuromuscular disease and asthma.

TransmissionThe most common way to transmit the virus is by droplets from coughing, sneezing or direct or indirect contact of respiratory secretions. Handling surfaces contaminated with virus (fomites), inhaling aerosols of bacteria into the mouth or nose. Fomites (e.g. Toys for children can spread disease by contact with them. Infectious airborne aerosols contain large droplets as well as droplet nuclei. The diameter of large respiratory droplets is >5-10?m. They are responsible for short-range transmission. The droplet nuclei have a diameter 5 mm and are responsible for the long-distance (airborne) transmission. Rapid spread has been observed in the population and especially in places like schools where there are many people. Clinical PresentationThe symptoms are similar to seasonal influenza (H1N1): fever, sore throats, malaise, headaches, myalgias, arthralgias, fatigue, and cough. Many patients, particularly in the pediatric group, had diarrhea and vomiting. This is not something that happens with seasonal flu. The data suggests that the H1N1 infection has a broad clinical spectrum. It can range from mild upper-respiratory tract symptoms to serious complications including respiratory failure, acute respiration distress syndrome (ARDS), and multi-organ dysfunction. The symptoms of diarrhea, which are reported by 20%-50% percent of patients do not need to be hospitalized. In certain countries, viral pneumonia is the main cause of hospitalization. Microbiological evidence for secondary bacterial and fungal infections has been detected in fatal events…In the USA, more than 70% of hospitalized patients had conditions that put them at a high risk of complications. According to surveillance data, individuals with chronic diseases and pregnant women are more likely to have severe or complicated flu illness. With this pandemic virus, an additional factor of risk has emerged: obesity. Incubation periods for the pandemic influenza virus are also similar to seasonal influenza. They range between 1 and 7 days. Ill children may shed the virus up to 7 day after the illness began. However, some groups of children such as immunocompromised or young infants can have longer viral transmission. The infectious period of influenza for prophylaxis is 1 day prior to fever onset and 24 hours following fever end. In order to control and limit the spread of influenza, developing countries use a variety of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. Non-pharmacological actions include: personal cleanliness, washing of hands with soap, covering of the mouth and nasal passages while coughing or wheezing. Close contact quarantine and mandatory isolation. The health worker should collect the samples using biosafety equipment. Pharmacological measures include antiviral (oseltamivir & zanamivir) drugs. It is recommended that these be administered within 48 hour of symptom onset. This drug should also be given as a priority to those patients at high risk of serious illness. Health workers should receive antiviral prophylaxis for up to six weeks with oseltamivir or four weeks with zanamivir. Close contacts and patients who do not receive prophylaxis are also advised to start treatment early with an antiviral medication. Few countries offer the vaccine. It is a very effective way to reduce influenza-related morbidity and death. The A/California/07/2009/H1N1 strain is the basis for this vaccine. It comes in both live attenuated and an inactivated version. Single doses are sufficient for children older than 9 and adults 18-64. Children under 10 will need two doses, separated by 21 days. Live attenuated vaccines are only available to persons between the ages of 2 and 49 who are not pregnant and immunocompetent and do not have chronic diseases. It is contraindicated for children under 5 years old with asthma, those taking long-term aspirin and anyone in close contact immunosuppressed individuals. Inactivated vaccination is not recommended for those with severe egg allergies or other vaccine components. The H1N1 subtype is an influenza virus that causes upper and lower respiratory infections. As of 30 December 2009, there were 15850 laboratories in Saudi Arabia, with 124 fatalities. It spreads through the droplets from coughing and sneezing. It can cause gastrointestinal inflammation, as well as a fever, sore throat and headache. In addition to antiviral treatment, prevention measures include mouth, nose and hand coverings when sneezing and coughing. Live attenuated or inactivated vaccinations come in two different types. Cites

Kshatriya RM, Khara NV, Ganjiwale J, Lote SD, Patel SN, Paliwal RP. Lessons Learnt From The Indian H1N1 Epidemic: Predictors Of Outcome Based On Epidemiological And Clinical Profile. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2018 Nov-Dec; 7(6):1506-1509.

Lopez, A., & Martinson, S. A. (2017). Respiratory System. Mediastinum. Pleurae. Pathologic Basis for Veterinary Diseases, 471-560.e1. doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-35775-3.00009-6

Keenliside A. Pandemic influenza A in Swine. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 2013; 370:259-71.

Nogales A, Martinez-Sobrido L, Chiem K, Topham DJ, DeDiego ML. Functional Evolution Of The 2009 Pandemic Influenza A Virus NS1 And PA In Humans. J. Virol. October 2018; volume 92, issue 19

Baudon E, Chu DKW, Tung DD, Thi Nga P, Vu Mai Phuong H, Le Khanh – -Hang N, Thanh LT, Thuy NT, Khanh NC, Mai LQ, Khong NV, Cowling BJ, Peyre M, Peiris M. Swine influenza viruses in Northern Vietnam in 2013-2014. Emerg Microbes. In 2018, a study with a focus on the topic of [subject] was published in the journal [publication name], Volume 7, Issue 1, on July 2. Influenzavirus A. ICTVdB Virus Description – 00046001 Influenzavirus A.

Sullivan, S. J., Jacobson, R. M., Dowdle, W. R., & Poland, G. A. (2010). 2009 H1N1 Influenza. Mayo Clinic proceedings, 85(1): 64-76. doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0588

Saunders-Hastings, P., & Krewski, D. (2016). Reviewing Pandemic Influenza History and Transmission Patterns. Pathogens, 5(4), 66. doi:10.3390/pathogens5040066

Bautista E. Chotpitayasunondh T. Gao Z. Harper SA. Shaw M. Uyeki T. Figshare; 2010 [cited 2020Apr4]… Available from:

AlMazroa, Memish, and AlWadey (2020) conducted research to … Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1): Description of the First Hundred Cases. Ann Saudi Med. 2010; 30(1):11-14. doi:10.4103/0256-4947.59366

Bajardi P, Poletto C, Ramasco J, Tizzoni M, Colizza V, Vespignani A. Human Mobility Networks and Travel Restrictions: Global Spread of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic. PLoS ONE is a scientific journal. 2011;6(1):e16591

Rutkowski, Michael. The Economic and Social Effects of Closing School During a H1N1 Influenza Epidemic. University of Pittsburgh Master’s Dissertation [Internet]. [cited 21 Mar 2020].

Global Health Observatory Map Gallery on the Internet World Health Organization (WHO). World health organizer (WHO).

Jilani T, Jamil R, Siddiqui A. H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu) [Internet]. 2020 [cited as 19 March 2020].

Mathematical model of pandemic H1N1 2009 The Weekly Epidemiological Record published an article in 2009 that discussed topics ranging from 341 to 348. Citation [March 20]

CDC. Outbreak of influenza A virus (H1N1) with swine origin in Mexico, March-April 2009. MMWR Morb Death Wkly Report. 2019; 58 (17):467-4470. Cite [2020 Mar 20].

Dalton CB, Cretikos MA, Durrheim DN, et al. Comparison of pandemic H1N1 influenza in adult patients hospitalized during the Protect phase of pandemic response. Med J Aust 2019. 192-356.cited. [2020 March 20].

Human infection by pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in hospitalized individuals. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2018, 84-305.cited by [2020 Mar 20].

Lera E, T.Worner N, Sancosmed M, Fabregas A, Casquero A, Melendo S et al. Clinical and epidemiological features of influenza A (H1N1) patients treated in the emergency room at a pediatric hospital. The European Journal of Pediatrics publishes research concerning children’s health and development. 2011; 170(3):371-378.

RMIT Training (Australia) PTY LTD. The Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal is a publication that highlights the health issues that are faced by Aboriginal and Islander people. Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines [Internet]. MMWR. The Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2009 [cited on 2020Mar20].

Greenberg ME. Neuzil Nvan. Holshue. Guan. Affiliations. Clinical Research and Development. Response to a Monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine: NEJM [Internet]. The New England Journal of Medicine is a medical journal that publishes research articles and reviews. 2009 [cited 2020Mar20].

An Argument In Enhancing The Care Quality In A Nursing Home

Improvements in the quality of care at nursing homes are needed

Many people put their elderly parents in nursing homes to receive the care they need. Most people are unaware that sending their loved-ones to a facility can put them at risk. A two-year time frame saw elderly abuse reported at 30% of nursing homes across America. These places are a breeding ground for different forms of abuse, such as physical, financial, and emotional. All of these are not always good reasons. To stop the abuse of elderly patients, these facilities need to improve and follow their legal obligations more closely. Nursing homes and other elder-care facilities need to improve their quality of care because many elderly patients are treated inhumanely. Even though they may be old, they are still human beings and should receive the treatment they deserve.

In these facilities, there are a variety of forms of abuse, but the three most prevalent are financial, emotional and physical abuse. These activities can be carried out on their loved one without them even noticing. The most common form of abuse that is reported in nursing care is physical abuse. This is because it can be seen immediately. Physical abuse can be any form of abuse, including kicking or hitting someone, restraints that are excessive, medication withholding, or the administration of unnecessary dosages. These can include bruises, fractures, and side-effects from medication. The emotional abuse is less visible. Emotional abuse can be classified as verbal or physical abuse. Although emotional abuse’s signs are much less obvious than those associated with physical abuse it is not any less abhorrent or common. Financial abuse of the elderly is one form of manipulation that leaves no other evidence than a trail of paper. They are often confused, and may not even know what’s going on in their financial situation. This is a vulnerability that people exploit. Because people are so willing to exploit and take advantage elderly people, they become vulnerable. Most common financial abuses against the elderly are scamming, healthcare fraud, and theft of credit card accounts. People will often convince elderly people to buy things they don’t need, such as medical services (Landers). 2-4). Inhumane treatment of people is not acceptable, particularly in care facilities where elderly people are meant to feel secure and cared for. These situations are completely unjustified and unnecessary. There is no excuse for treating people this way, but there are some reasons. Three main reasons are: a staff that is uncaring, a family that has been forgotten, and profit. The nursing home staff is the main cause of abuse against the elderly. Some nurses in nursing homes feel that they do not get enough compensation for their work and take it out on their patients. David Ruppe says, “The reimbursements for nursing assistants are low in comparison to the needs of residents, so they are paid around $7-$9 per hour.” 19). This is because the amount received is far below the amount deserved. Some nurses steal from their patients out of desperation and frustration. The nurses may be at fault for this behavior, and it is true that they do behave in this manner, but only when there are no visitors. Most often, elderly relatives will only visit their families sparingly. They are the main targets. Nursing staff treat patients in a way that is unprofessional and negligent. The companies who own these facilities, not the people involved directly, such as untrustworthy employees and absentee family members, should be held accountable for their negligence. In America, 69 percent of nursing home are run to make money. It is money that’s being saved and made, not the patients. It is unlikely that abuse occurs as frequently if there was more security or people watching for these obscure behaviors. The owners will do this if overcharging elderly patients and not buying them extra supplies makes more money for the owner. Many non-profit facilities use volunteers and fundraisers in order to provide care for patients. 27). The reasons for poor treatment in nursing homes is not an excuse, but it’s the most common reason. It’s possible to stop this behavior by following the legal rules that nursing homes must follow.

It is possible for these abuses to happen because federal and state laws do not specify the exact nature of their provisions. Nursing Home Reform Act is one law that states nursing homes have to “provide services and activity in order to maintain or attain the highest practicable mental, physical, and psychological well-being for each resident according a written plan.” 1). The basic law has been broken in nursing home abuse. The nursing home staff often violates a few federal regulations. The facility must be staffed with enough nurses, according to the first federal regulation. Nursing homes often have nurses who are overworked and stressed out by the sheer number of patients they care for. More funding would allow these facilities to hire more employees and solve or assist in many violence problems. These issues would allow for other regulations to be adhered to, such as one that says nursing homes are required to “Prevent deterioration in a resident’s abilities to bathe and dress, groom and transfer, ambulate and toilet, eat and communicate” (FNHRSL). 2). If patients are mistreated, they will lose the ability of completing many tasks independently, whether or not they are in severe physical pain. No one should be unable to maintain cleanliness or communicate with others. This regulation states that the dignity and respectful treatment of patients must be maintained. 2). It is impossible for an elderly person who is abused, threatened, or robbed to maintain their dignity and respect. Charles Ornstein describes, for example, how a nursing assistant is accused of sharing a Snapchat photo of a nursing home resident on the toilet. 19). This kind of embarrassment is terrible for anyone. Even if it were an elderly patient being “taken in” by the nurses. Anyone would find it embarrassing to be unable to take care of themselves. Abuse is even worse. Losing dignity can lead to mental illnesses, such as anxiety and depression. According to American Psychological Association’s (APA), mental disorders like these can cause death or suicide in older people. 11). In nursing homes, the nurses and various other factors are responsible for causing many people to lose both their dignity and their mental well-being. These federal regulations and laws may seem morally correct but many institutions don’t follow them. This results in the elderly being treated inhumanely.

Even though this abuse occurs in many nursing homes across the United States it is important to note that not all of them are involved. Nursing homes are often viewed as having many positives by individuals. In some cases, a constant supply of care can be very useful for those patients who cannot care for themselves. 3). These residences offer a structured routine that is easy for patients to adjust to. As people age, they rely more on repetition and schedules to help them remember and accomplish daily tasks. Many patients can benefit from following a strict daily schedule. However, they do not like the fact that it limits their freedom (Wood). 5). There is also a large amount of socialization and free time in nursing homes run correctly. There are also presentations or games for residents. When you reach an age where you are no longer able to walk around and talk with people, it is vital that your social life is active. It is not good for people to lie in bed all day watching cable. 7). There are many benefits to the care that seniors receive in a nursing home. Not all nursing facilities are reliable and people should be aware of what to look for.

If a family member is better off in a care facility, that’s what you should do. Nursing homes are not all horror stories. There are nursing homes that operate for profit and put the money before the elderly residents. It is important to be aware of what abuses could occur. Abuse of the elderly is most often reported in three forms: financial, emotional, or physical. It is mainly because there are no caring staff members or family present. Profits for companies that own these facilities also play a major role. These obscene and illegal acts continue despite laws that require these facilities to comply with. It is not even noticed that these patients’ human rights are being violated. The issues could be easily fixed. Nursing homes and elder care facilities need to improve their quality of care because many elderly people feel inhumanely treated. Many nursing homes show their patients the utmost respect and care. However, there are still many that treat these people like animals or as objects. Although the elderly may not be young, they still deserve to receive respect and care.

Three Skeleton Key: Reviewing George G. Toudouze Short Story

Three Skeleton Key features three men working in a lighthouse. Itchoua, Le Gleo, the unnamed Narrator, are their characters. Three Skeleton Key Island is where they operate the lighthouse. It was named after three convicts who escaped from prison and whose canoe crashed into the island. They eventually succumbed to hunger and thirst.

Itchoua notices a ship heading straight towards the island. He alarms the others. The ship was abandoned. It eventually crashed into rocks. They signalled the ship to turn around and it did. However, they soon discovered that the ship was full of rats. The men assumed that the ship had been abandoned, but they soon realized that the rats on the ship had killed the entire crew. The rats covered the entire island in their swarm. The lighthouse is now full of men. The men are trapped in the lighthouse because the rats became hungry and forced them to climb up to the top level. This attracts attention from the mainland who sends people out to inspect the lighthouse. People arrive and assume that three men have been killed. However, Itchoua sends a Morse Code message through the lighthouse’s lamp. The fireboat was used to kill the rats by spraying water onto the lighthouse. This was the seventh rescue attempt. Le Gleo’s head is now a mess. The fireboat returned on the eighth day with fresh meat in its back. The rats race towards the meat. After giving the rats gasoline, the fireboat makes them eat the remaining rats.

The men can then be saved. Le Gleo was then able to open his mind and was sent back to France. Itchoua died of infection caused by fighting off rats. The narrator returns home to repair the lighthouse.


The storyteller

Three Skeleton Keys was his most frightening experience.

Because the pay was very high, he decided to work at Three Skeleton Keys to help save some money before he got married.

It was a great life!

2 years at the keys

Itchoua and Le Gleo helped me to build the lighthouse.

After the horrors of his island experience, he returned to the island and resumed serving.

35-years experience working in lighthouses

After he returned to shore leave at June’s end, his most frightening experience was.

Le Gleo

Frenchman on the age of the narrator

He was able to recover his mind and was sent back home to France. He lived in an institution for the rest of his adult life.


The head keeper and lightkeeper

From the country of Spain

Le Gleo was approximately 10 years younger than the narrator.

Within a week of being bitten by a rat, he died.


Provisions: A supply of food or other items that is needed

Maneuver is to maneuver in a controlled and often skillful manner

Get it done quickly!

Riveted means to grab and hold everyone’s attention

Besiegers are people who surround someone aggressively or in an annoying way.

Barge: A large boat with a flat bottom that can be used to transport goods on rivers or canals.

Key: A low-lying island

Navigation and ships: maritime

Brethren: Lay members of a masculine religious order

Regatta is a series or races of boats

Pestilential: This is a potential epidemic disease that could spread.

Diminution: A shift to something smaller/lower

Predominate: have more number, power and status.

Flotilla is a fleet small craft

Phalanx: Any close-knit group or people


Notify me when you’re warned.

Even though they thought they would die, their friends believed they would live.


Three Skeleton keys

The location of the lighthouse

A jagged rock strip twenty miles from The mainland

Built off Guiana’s coast

150ft in length and 40ft in width – “just large enough to let your legs stretch”

Although the risk of drowning was not as high, the waters surrounding the island were populated by sharks

This story about 3 convicts who fled from jail in a canoe stolen from their prison has earned the company its bad reputation. The key was left behind and the canoe was thrown onto the rock. They were eventually starved and died.

Hidden beneath the surface are treacherous reefs



A tall, gray cylinder that is welded to solid rock using iron rods.

Itchoua and Le Gleo were the two narrators who lived in the Three Skeleton Keys.

120 feet high

Additional info:

George G. Toudouze composed a piece of writing in 1877 that still lives on today in 1972.

Love the ocean?

He wrote a history and adventure novel about the French navy.

Authored dozens of articles and plays on art and travel.

Gustave Toudouze was his father and a well-known writer.

The Three Skeleton keys was the home of the characters for 18 more months before they left for shore.

Cornelius de Witt was named the mastership.

Study Of Developmental Phonological Dyslexia

Table of Contents

Disorder description

Case-study description



Disorder description

Dyslexia describes a disorder in which a person has difficulty understanding language and/or reading. Rudolf Berlin created the term dyslexia in 1887 to describe a condition where an individual’s inability or inability read. He distinguished between brain injury (alexia), and brain damage (dyslexia). Berlin then focused on the effects of physical trauma on two main types: acquired or developmental dyslexia. Understanding the differences between these types will help you to better understand their impact on your individual lives.

Acquired dyslexia means that an individual has a reading impairment. This is when they are unable to read as well as they once were. However, developmental dyslexia refers to a reading disorder that occurs in children who are unable to read normally because of difficulties they have faced during their development. This condition affects the individual’s ability to read, write, spell, and understand language. It is important to understand that dyslexia can’t control your visual ability or intelligence. Reading is complex and can result in reading difficulties. Different types of dyslexia may affect different individuals. Reading requires two processes. Max Coltheart’s 1978 dual-route model demonstrates this. This model shows how one reads words and letters from print to understand how to make phonation/speech. The left-hand side shows the entire word aspect of reading. It includes the recognition and interpretation of the word’s meaning. This then produces speech. The non lexical (right-handside) is linked to the lettersound rules. It examines an individual’s ability work with letters.

Description of the case study. The case study is “A Case Study of Developmental Phonological Dyslexia” (Temple & Marshall). It examines H.M. whose ability to read is carefully analyzed in order for her to understand her condition. This enabled researchers to collect data from H.M’s tests, draw conclusions and create hypotheses. H.M., a 17-year old girl, is intelligent and has a reading ability of 10 years 11 month. Her difficulty with non-word-reading is much more difficult than word-reading. In other words, she can’t understand long non-words. It can be seen in her inability to recognize words that are too blurred to allow for global perception. H.M.’s phonological and visual paralexias are the main points of this case study.

H.M. was found to have similar characteristics and features to other cases. H.M. is a developmental phonologically dyslexic, according to the case study. The case study starts with context and details about dyslexia. The focus then turns on the case report where more detail on the subject is given, and intelligence/capabilities/abilities are explained and compared to those of the average child e.g. H.M. scores on the verbal as well as performance tests. H.M.’s analysis is broken down into sub-categories, such as non-word reading’ or word reading’.

This case study explains the reasons for H.M. being given various tests. This case study allows readers to compare H.M.’s case of phonologically dyslexic to other cases or types. Cognitive theory description Coltheart has developed a universal model called dual-route theories that is used by cognitive scientists, psychologists and sociologists to help them understand the reading process and any impairments. The model shows how two main routes (lexical or non-lexical), explain how an individual sees and recognizes printed letters and produces speech sounds.

Reading impairments occur when one or more routes are affected. The two main routes have two conditions: phonological or non-lexical route and surface dyslexia/lexical route. The lexical path consists three key components that help an individual produce speech. Access to the written words store, which stores familiar words, is the first. The individual will be able to access a library of knowledge and memory that can help him or her construct the letters. A condition called surface dyslexia, wherein the individual has difficulty reading whole words (i.e. sight vocabulary). After that is access to a word meaning library.

Once the spoken word store is completed, the individual can link the meaning and familiarity of a word to its pronunciation to produce speech. The non-lexical path consists of just one part: the letter sound rules. Producing speech is based on the ability of an individual to sound out letters and create words using letter-sound rules. Understanding the meaning of the letters ‘d, o, and g form the word dog’ in their phonic sense is one example. If this dual route model is disrupted, it’s called phonological dilexia. The individual may have poor knowledge and skills in non-lexical learning. This is apparent in people who have difficulty reading nonsense words. They tend to interpret these words as the closest similar-looking words. These are called “lexicalization mistakes”.

Evidence H.M. has been diagnosed with a developmental-phonological dyslexic. The condition is a result of a problem in her non-lexical pathway. She is having trouble with her grapheme/phoneme rules, which hinders her ability to understand the relationship between letters and their sounds. Phonological disorders are caused by poor understanding of letter-sound rules. Phonological dyslexics are people who have difficulty reading nonsense words, as opposed to words.

H.M. had poor nonword reading abilities. H.M. relies on lexical routes of word familiarity. Meanings and words, therefore nonsense words are too foreign to her understanding. H.M.’s ability to read nonwords was tested by 50 stimuli, 25 word and 25 nonword. The stimuli were only separated by one letter. street : road. H.M. had to correctly read every word. She only managed to correctly read 9 non-words (Temple & Marshall 1983). H.M. relies heavily on her lexical pathway, so memorization is essential to her reading skills. When asked about her ability to remember new words and help with reading, she stated that it was the only way she could do it. H.M. was said to be “at minimum average intelligence and above average vocabulary”, because dyslexics do not lack intelligence (Temple & Marshall. 1983).

Phonological dyslexia is generally classified into one of two types: visual or derivational. H.M. said that her most common reading errors are both visual and derivational. A derivational problem is one in which the subject’s reading error is due to a common root of given stimuli. On the other hand, a visually-related error is one in which the subject’s reading error arises from visual similarity with the stimuli. H.M. was presented with 346 words. 299 and 92 (84%) were correctly read. There were several errors present, both being derivational (24%) and visual (41%) (Temple & Marshall, 1983).

H.M. is symptomatic of phonologically dyslexics. Conclusion The dual route theory can be used to base case studies like H.M. A model that can describe the skill of reading and its components helps us identify the root causes of dyslexia. It is important for you to know that there will be multiple components of the dual-route model involved in most cases. H.M. might experience different symptoms depending on what component of the dual-route model she is using.

Dual-route theories are a common model that helps diagnose dyslexics. There is still a great deal of research that needs to be done to extend current knowledge on the causes, effects, identification, characteristics, and treatments/interventions for dyslexia. There are many skill tests available to help diagnose dyslexics. With more skills being developed, accuracy will increase. Although theories and models are highly effective in explaining situations, more research on the relationship between individuality symptoms and dyslexia will help us to better diagnose and treat these patients.

Refer to:

Temple, C., & Marshall, J. (1983). Study of developmental phonological disorder. British Journal Of Psychology, 74(4), 517-533. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1983.tb01883.

Wagner, R. (1973). 5. Rudolf Berlin: The originator of dyslexia. The Orton Society published a bulletin exploring the impact of certain phenomena on the environment. The bulletin discussed the effects these phenomena have on ecosystems, such as climate change, pollution, and resource depletion. Additionally, it considered the implications these issues have on the long-term health of our planet. The overall goal of the study was to assess the current state of natural resources and provide a framework for future management. The findings were published in the Bulletin of The Orton Society, which can be found in volume 23, issue 1, with a DOI of 10.1007/bf02653841.

Wu, D. (2002). The Third Route to Reading? Implications of Phonological Dyslexia. Neurocase, 8(4), 274-293. doi: 10.1093/neucas/8.4.274

Ziegler, J., Caste

Contrast, Color, And Size And Their Effects On Visual Perception And Signal Strength

Table of Contents

Introductory remarks


Visual Perception and Bottom Up Processing

Contrast and Contour with Color

Size and motion

Case Study in Design

Advice on Design

In summary

Citing sources

Starting off,

Visual perception refers to the way we perceive the world through the light entering our eyes. Since the dawn of time, humans have had to learn to distinguish between signals and noise in order to be able to adapt to changing environments. Because humans can distinguish between the targeted signals and background noise, these signals are crucial to cognition. This review examines theories, concepts, and analyses the key aspects of signal processing. These concepts have profound implications when applied to user experience. It can be used to distinguish between an effective and usable interface. Examining the Boston Citgo sign is a great example of how user experience can be impacted by a solid understanding of visual perception.

DiscussionVisual perception and bottom-up processing Humans are able take in signals from their environment and make the appropriate actions to protect themselves. Although our nervous system is highly skilled at recognizing signals and interpreting them, they aren’t always easy to understand. Signals are usually ambiguous. Knowing the strength will enable you to discriminate between noise and signals. Bottom-up Processing. Because of its many connections to an optic nerve and other sensitive receptors, the human eyes are sensitive to signals. The cornea allows light to enter the eye, where it is focused onto the photoreceptors. The retina is composed of rods and cones. For high resolution and color vision, the fovea is “densely packed” with cones. The rods are located near the periphery and help in processing light and moving in different environments. One glance can be enough to process many signals in one go. The human eye is capable of detecting contrast, color and contour in one glance. This will all be explained in the sections below.

Contrast and color contrast are key factors in determining signal strength. Contrast describes the difference between a stimulus and the stimuli surrounding it. It perceives changes between the background, foreground, and background. The brain perceives the stimulus as a change in the background and foreground, just like our brains do with signals. To produce the best signal, it is important to strike a balance between maximum and threshold contrasts in design. Designing on the edge of only noticeable differences (JND), or over-designing, is not a good idea. Visual perceptions vary greatly depending on the viewers and viewing conditions.

Contour and Luminance. Contrast is most affected by Luminance. Luminance is the measurement of perceived brightness. In practice, brightness and luminance are different terms. Because there are more light-processing devices in the retina than ever before, humans are therefore more sensitive for luminance. This luminance sensitivities allows people to adapt to various light conditions and detect changes easily.

Humans have developed the ability to detect changes in the environment throughout evolution through contour enhancements or variances on luminance levels. Edges are formed when the object’s brightness changes rapidly. This creates a high contrast between the stimulus background and it. Once an object is identified as having an edge, its luminance changes rapidly, and the nerves in the eyes exaggerate it. This allows the visual cortex of the brain to process it. This allows humans to identify objects in the environment and give them meaning or value based upon their appearance.

Hue and saturation. Hues allow us to distinguish between different spectral colors on the visible spectrum. The intensity of a hue’s dominant wavelength at saturation, also known as purity, is called the hue’s saturation. If a hue’s purest form is found, it will be the most saturated. Accordingly, this has a huge impact on the signal’s intensity as well as contrast. An unsaturated color would have more “contributions from other wavelengths” than a saturated hue and therefore a lower contrast. It is best to avoid using too saturated colors in designs. While humans tend to enjoy more saturated hues, there are some drawbacks to using them.

Motion and sizeMotion. As it has a major impact on contrast and depth as well as luminance sensitivities, detecting motion is an important function of visual perception. The nerve endings at the retina’s peripheral are responsible for processing and calculating motion. Motion “reflects changes in one’s visual environment” and can have an effect on how behavioral responses and actions are formed. Motion is a design concept. Overuse can lead to over-stimulation. Humans cannot block out motion. Designers must strategically and intentionally use motion and movement to communicate meaning.

Size. Signal processing requires that the stimulus size be considered along with its luminance, contour and shape. The signal’s size has a direct correlation with its stimulus size. The signal strength increases with increasing stimulus size. Other influences and complicating factors such as distance and viewing angle can also have an impact on size. The relationship between size and viewing distance is inverted. As distance increases, perceived size becomes smaller. The opposite is true for size and viewing angles. As the stimulus grows in size, so does its viewing angle.

Design Case Despite each concept being described in separate sections above, each one of the concepts relating to signal processors is interrelated. Analyzing a real-world case of design, we will examine Boston’s Citgo sign as seen at night. This will allow us to see if the design conforms to or goes against bottom-up visual perception.

Brightness and Contours. The driver will be able to see the sign’s boundaries by looking at the sharp horizontal and/or vertical edges. These stark contrasts in luminance along its edges make the sign stand out against the dark background. A red triangle, with its sharp edges and shape, has a strong contrast to its white background. The human brain is wired to sense contoured edges so the retina will amplify the edges along both the sides and the triangle. This enhances the perceived contrast.

The LED lights inside the sign emit intense luminance at night. This is sending a strong signal through the visual cortex. The Citgo sign is visible from the driver’s view when they travel west on Storrow Drive. This can make it dangerous for their safety. Even in bad weather, the bright lights can blind or blur the vision temporarily, making it easier to get into accidents. It is not surprising that drivers could be distracted by the Citgo sign when driving, as they are most sensitive to changes in luminance.

Hue and saturation. The Citgo LED sign features high saturation and strong luminance. Citgo’s logo features the most intense colors, which are the dominant wavelengths of visible light. Saturation should be used sparingly in interface design. Too many colors can cause fatigue and eye strain. Red has good visibility because of the many red-sensitive fovea cones. However, visibility is poor under low lighting conditions. The retina is more sensitive than red to blue but has fewer blue receptors. When low illumination levels are low, the human eyes tend to shift towards blue which gives the illusion of a higher luminance. While both blue and red hues can be found at the visible spectrum, it is not a good design choice to place them close together, especially when they are full saturated. Red hues tend toward the forefront of stimuli, while the blues fade to the background. The close proximity of the lights to the eyes creates a quivering effect similar to motion at the periphery. Citgo already employs motion through different flashing patterns with high contrast, but the added distraction caused by saturated hues is only going to make it more distracting.

Size. Because the sign, which measures sixty feet tall, can be seen from most parts of Boston, it is easily visible from the skyline above all the buildings. It is visible from the westbound traffic on Storrow Drive because of its size. At night, the sign’s stark contrast with the sky and buildings around it makes it stand out more than the rest. The sign’s strong contrast makes it visible from any distance. This high contrast can be dangerous especially while driving. Rapid eye movements and rapid onset can cause fatigue in the sensory system. LEDs that have higher levels of saturation and luminance tend to have a quicker onset time than other light sources.

Recommendations for designThe Citgo sign’s strong contrast can create dangerous driving conditions for drivers, particularly at night. The sensory system will become fatigued if there are too many strong signals. Interface designers must find the optimal contrast in order to achieve visual perception. Split complement theory may be used to reduce Citgo’s blue and red colors. Alternately, you can reduce the intensity by mixing darker colors with the red and blue. Aside from reducing luminance at night, this will also decrease the strength of signal to passersby. This can reduce brightness perception and lessen the glare created by bright lights. You can control the contrast by making these changes. This will give you a predictable and controlled result.

Conclusion: Vision is the way humans perceive and process their environment. It involves how light enters our eyes. Designers will be better able to understand signals and noise. This knowledge will help them to influence the behavior and psychology of signal processing. Designers want predictable outcomes. This is possible by applying psychological and perceptual concepts related to signal strength, contrast and other factors. Each factor has a unique role in determining contrast and signal strength. But it’s important to know how all these concepts impact visual perception, design, and overall perception. The combination of all these factors can have a negative effect on the eye, as demonstrated by the iconic Citgo sign in Boston. A designer will become more efficient if they are able to understand the role of each factor. Designers can make design more appealing and less burdensome by understanding each factor.


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Medical Marijuana: Personal Opinion About This Topic

One of the most controversial topics in today’s society is medical marijuana. There has been a constant battle between federal officials, doctors, patients and medical marijuana. However, medical marijuana has been shown to be more effective than pain medication in eliminating side effects and being less addictive. Individuals suffering from serious illnesses and conditions should have medical access to marijuana.

At the moment, medical marijuana is legal in thirty states. Medical marijuana is legal in all 50 states. These activities, however are still illegal federally. The laws in these thirty states show how they should work. Federal alcohol laws are somewhat modeled on state laws. You must be 21 to buy or sell marijuana. Anyone under 21 can sell or give marijuana. It is a crime. The limit for purchasing and possessing marijuana is one ounce. All retail outlets could only sell marijuana between 8 a.m. (Calkins) Times Magazine reports that Colorado marijuana DUIs have dropped 33 percent. 2 % in Q1 2017. (Abrams). In the first quarter of 2017, 150 people were issued citations for driving while under the influence. Despite being similar laws, studies have shown that alcohol causes more fatalities. These laws will be a guide for us. Additionally, medical marijuana is often used in the United States for pain control and nausea. Even though marijuana doesn’t have the strength to handle extreme pain like post-surgical, there are still many uses. Many Americans suffer from chronic pain. Some studies have shown that marijuana can be used to ease pain and increase appetite. Many cancer patients claim that smoking marijuana makes it possible to resume daily activities after treatment. It is also known to reduce neuropathy pain. This is pain that results from nerve damage. Everybody can relate in some way to cancer. One in three of us has been affected by this terrible disease. Around 38. National Cancer Institute: Approximately 38. These alarming statistics should give us the opportunity to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy. Imagine your loved ones suffering from side effects of chemotherapy. You would be unable to comfort them.

While many diseases are not curable, doctors continue prescribing pain medications that can cause severe internal damage. Vicodin (opioids) is one of the most commonly prescribed prescription medications. Despite the fact that opioid overdoses cause death in 140 million Americans each day (DEA), Extreme withdrawal symptoms can also be caused by prescription painkillers if they are suddenly stopped. Even long-term users of marijuana, there is no withdrawal. According to the Drug Enforcement Agency, there has never been a case of a person dying from an overdose due to cannabis. In the past few years, opioid abuse has increased. It is clear that medical marijuana is safer than pain medication. Marijuana is much less likely to become dependent than opioids, and there are no fatal overdoses. Clearly, medical marijuana defeats pain medication(opioids) hands down.

What society would allow alcohol consumption that causes thousands of deaths each year and allows doctors access to opioids without knowing about the dangers of dependency? The legalization of medical marijuana has not been made. While marijuana might have a negative stigma, medical marijuana should be legal. It is difficult to believe that marijuana should be legalized, given all of the benefits it has.