How To Quote A Song Title In An Essay

When writing an essay, it is important to properly cite all of the sources that you use. This includes song titles. There are a few different ways to quote a song title in an essay, but the most common is to put it in quotation marks.

For example, if you wanted to quote the song “Happy” by Pharrell Williams, you would put it in quotation marks like this: “Happy” by Pharrell Williams.

If you are writing about a song that is from a movie or TV show, you would put the song title in quotation marks and then put the name of the movie or TV show in parentheses. For example, if you wanted to quote the song “The Last Goodbye” from the TV show The Originals, you would put it in quotation marks like this: “The Last Goodbye” from the TV show The Originals.

If you are using a song title as part of a larger sentence, you do not need to put it in quotation marks. For example, if you wanted to say “I love the song ‘Happy’ by Pharrell Williams,” you would not need to put the song title in quotation marks. can provide further guidance on proper citation practices for essays.

Understanding the Significance of Correct Song Title Referencing

When you’re writing an essay, it’s important to properly cite your sources. This includes song titles. Many people don’t realize that there are specific rules for citing songs, and they can often get their citations wrong.

There are a few things to keep in mind when citing song titles. First, you need to include the artist’s name and the song’s title. You should also include the album it’s from, as well as the year it was released. If the song is from a movie or TV show, you should include the name of the movie or TV show.

It’s also important to use the correct formatting. Song titles should be italicized. If there are multiple song titles from the same album, you can list them all on one line, or you can list them separately. If you’re using a website like Spotify to listen to the song, you can include the website’s name in the citation.

Here’s an example of how to cite a song:

“I Will Always Love You” by Whitney Houston (The Bodyguard, 1992)

“I Will Always Love You” by Whitney Houston (The Bodyguard, 1992)

Listen on Spotify:

Navigating Different Style Guidelines for Song Titles

When you are writing an essay, you may need to reference a song title. Depending on the style guide you are using, the formatting for song titles can vary. In this article, we will explore the different style guides and how to properly quote a song title in each.

The Modern Language Association (MLA) style guide is the most common style guide for academic writing. According to the MLA style guide, song titles are written in italics. For example:

“The Times They Are A-Changin'”

If you are using the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), song titles are written in quotation marks. For example:

“The Times They Are A-Changin'”

Another popular style guide is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA). According to the APA style guide, song titles are written in quotation marks and are followed by the performer’s name. For example:

“The Times They Are A-Changin'” by Bob Dylan

Whichever style guide you are using, it is important to be consistent throughout your essay.

Formatting Song Titles in MLA Style

When writing an essay, quoting a song title is similar to quoting a book or movie title. The title of the song should be italicized, and the name of the artist should be included in parentheses after the title.

For example:

In “The Star-Spangled Banner,” Francis Scott Key describes the night he watched the British bomb Baltimore.

“The Star-Spangled Banner” (written by Francis Scott Key)

APA Style: Handling Song Titles in Your Essay

When you are writing an essay, it is important to follow the appropriate style guidelines. One area where there can be some confusion is how to properly cite a song title.

In general, when citing a song title, you should italicize the title and include the artist’s name. For example:

“(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” by The Rolling Stones

If you are quoting a line from a song, you should put the line in quotation marks and include the artist’s name. For example:

“I can’t get no satisfaction” from The Rolling Stones

When citing a song in APA style, you should include the artist’s name, the song title, and the album name. For example:

The Rolling Stones. “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction.” Rolling Stones. London, England: ABKCO Music, 1965.

Chicago Style: Citing Song Titles within Your Writing

When writing about a song in an essay, it is necessary to include the song’s title and the name of the artist. In Chicago style, song titles are italicized. The name of the artist is typically placed in parentheses after the song title.

Here is an example of how to cite a song title in Chicago style:

“I Will Always Love You” by Whitney Houston (1992)

If you are quoting a line from a song, you should include the line number in parentheses after the song title and the artist’s name.

Here is an example of how to cite a line from a song in Chicago style:

“I will always love you” (line 4) by Whitney Houston (1992)

Balancing Italics and Quotation Marks for Song Titles

When it comes to quoting song titles in your essay, it’s important to use the right type of punctuation. Here’s a guide on how to properly format song titles:

1. Italicize the song title.

2. Put the title in quotation marks if it’s being used as a title of a work.

3. Don’t italicize or put quotation marks around the title if it’s being used in the text of the essay.

Here’s an example:

“The Times They Are A-Changin'” is a well-known Bob Dylan song.

The Times They Are A-Changin’ is a well-known Bob Dylan song.

Addressing Titles of Individual Songs and Complete Albums

When quoting a song title in an essay, it is important to address the title of the individual song and the complete album. For example, if you are quoting the song “Let it Go” from the Disney movie Frozen, you would write:

“In Frozen, the song ‘Let it Go’ is about Elsa accepting her powers and moving on from the past.”

If you are quoting the album Hotel California by The Eagles, you would write:

“The Eagles’ album Hotel California is about the dark side of the American dream.”

Consistency in Formatting: Ensuring Proper Presentation

When quoting a song title in an essay, it is important to maintain consistency in formatting. This ensures that the title is properly presented and that the essay flows smoothly. The following guidelines should be followed:

1. Song titles should always be italicized.

2. If the song title appears at the beginning of a sentence, it should be followed by a comma.

3. If the song title appears at the end of a sentence, it should be followed by a period.

4. In order to differentiate between the song title and the lyrics, the lyrics should be placed in quotation marks.

Here is an example of how to properly quote a song title in an essay:

“I Will Always Love You” is a song that many people know and love.

Ethical Considerations: Giving Credit to Songwriters and Artists

When quoting a song title in an essay, it is important to give credit to the songwriter and artist. This is an ethical consideration to ensure that these individuals are given the credit they deserve for their work.

There are a few different ways to give credit to a songwriter or artist. The most common way is to include the name of the songwriter and the name of the artist in parentheses after the song title. For example, if you were to quote the song “Sweet Caroline” by Neil Diamond, you would include the following in your essay:

“Sweet Caroline” (Neil Diamond)

If the song is a cover version, you would credit the original artist instead of the cover artist. For example, if you were to quote the song “The Wanderer” by Dion, you would include the following in your essay:

“The Wanderer” (Dion)

If the song is an instrumental, you would credit the composer instead of the artist. For example, if you were to quote the song “Pomp and Circumstance” by Sir Edward Elgar, you would include the following in your essay:

“Pomp and Circumstance” (Sir Edward Elgar)

Enhancing the Clarity and Professionalism of Your Essay

When you quote a song title in your essay, you want to make sure that it is clear and concise. You also want to make sure that it is presented in a professional manner. In order to do this, there are a few things that you need to do.

The first thing that you need to do is to make sure that the song title is italicized. This is important because it shows that the title is being used as a reference and it is not just part of the text.

The next thing that you need to do is to make sure that the title is correctly capitalized. This is important because it shows that you are taking the time to present the information in a professional manner.

The last thing that you need to do is to make sure that the title is placed in quotation marks. This is important because it shows that the title is being used as a direct quote.

When you follow these steps, you can be sure that your essay will be presented in a clear and professional manner.

The Little Scientists

Certain preschools are piloting a new program that incorporates science into all aspects of the curriculum. At Parkland Elementary School, the afternoon prekindergarten class offers a new snack item: strawberry-flavored Jell-O with moon and star shapes. While this treat may appeal to picky eaters, teacher Sheryl O’Shea chose it to complement the students’ study of color and light. The transparent Jell-O allows the children to explore the concept of translucency. Parkland Elementary, part of the Greece Central school district near the city of Greece, is one of several schools in the area that have embraced a science-based approach to teaching preschool. Rather than sporadic science experiments, these schools incorporate science into every aspect of the 2.5-hour school day.

In O’Shea’s classroom, even the play area is connected to the current science lessons on the sun, moon, and stars. The children imagine themselves camping under the stars, write letters to their loved ones, and learn about nocturnal animals. Developed by Lucia French, a professor at the University of Rochester, this approach to teaching preschool, called ScienceStart!, marks a departure from traditional early childhood education methods. Instead of treating science as magic, ScienceStart! aims to explain the scientific principles behind everyday phenomena. French’s research has shown that incorporating science, along with quality literature, into the curriculum can improve children’s literacy skills.

Through the ScienceStart! program, children at Parkland Elementary are exposed to vocabulary words that are typically beyond the comprehension of preschool and early elementary students. Assessments conducted as part of French’s research support this observation.

However, an early childhood education expert warns that the success of the program depends on the teachers’ interest in science. If the teachers themselves are not enthusiastic about science, it is unlikely that the children will be either.

This examination of the characteristics of matter, a component of the French curriculum, continues during interactive group discussions. Here, children engage in sensory experiences such as finger-painting to explore smooth textures, and they use materials like rice, sand, glitter, and pasta to create artwork with rough textures. French suggests that teachers abandon units centered around themes and holidays, as these often result in fragmented and superficial approaches to preschool curriculum. However, Pat Swedrick, a pre-K teacher at Audubon School No. 33, has successfully integrated discussions on scientific concepts of softness and hardness with activities related to Black History Month and other subjects like music.

In order to address these topics, Swedrick incorporates the use of a "rain stick," a long wooden tube filled with rice or beans that is associated with African rituals. Through this tool, she teaches her students about soft and hard sounds. The children showcase their understanding by playing drums and tapping sticks together, varying the force to produce different levels of sound. Swedrick emphasizes that with careful planning and the use of appropriate literature, various events and topics can be seamlessly integrated into the curriculum.

Sheila Murphy, a special education teacher at School 33, demonstrates the scientific inquiry process by asking her students to make predictions. She gathers various materials such as paper, feathers, cotton balls, a wooden toy iron, and places them in front of an electric fan. Before turning on the fan, she asks the children near her what they think will happen. This step aligns with French’s program, which teaches children how to plan, observe, and reflect on their actions and experiences. When the fan is switched on, one of the children is delighted to see how far the cotton ball is blown across the room. Murphy mentions that one student in her class overcame his fear of hand dryers in the school bathroom by working with the fan.

"I like that we can teach kids not to be afraid of spiders and to appreciate the beauty of rocks," Murphy says, highlighting the positive impact of the curriculum. Other educators also emphasize important lessons learned through the program. Marie Munier, another pre-K teacher at School 33, praises the program for instilling respect for tools such as magnifying glasses and flashlights. Instead of storing them away after a lesson, she now keeps them accessible for children to use regularly.

Swedrick mentions that her students look forward to exploring the garden outside their classroom with clipboards and crayons in hand. They collect data by observing the growth of plants and flowers, identifying blooms, and noting the presence of bugs and birds. The children are encouraged to draw pictures based on their observations. School No. 33 is one of the schools where ScienceStart! is implemented in five out of seven pre-K classrooms. It serves as a space for refining and enhancing French’s curriculum as teachers collaborate and exchange ideas.

During a conversation with teachers, French discovers that they are facing challenges when presenting the concept of liquids without a solid for comparison. Some children have asked if sand is a liquid because it can be poured. French’s attempts at conducting a controlled study in the school have been compromised as teachers who initially did not use the curriculum became interested and incorporated the units into their teaching. Parents also play a role in the ScienceStart! approach, as they receive simple experiments in plastic baggies to engage in open-ended activities with their children. These "ZipKits" foster a connection between home and school, and teachers follow up with parents to discuss the effectiveness of the activities.

Overall, ScienceStart! has proven to be a valuable curriculum that promotes hands-on learning and enhances understanding of scientific concepts among young children. The integration of various subjects and the involvement of both teachers and parents contribute to a well-rounded educational experience.

"School science should be enjoyable, and preschool science should be even more enjoyable," she states. Douglas adds that although there is a growing interest in science within the preschool community, it remains an untapped market. An additional $2 million grant was awarded to the Education Development Center in Newton, Massachusets, to develop a science curriculum for preschoolers. Now in its third year of development and testing, "Science Explorations: Engaging Young Children in Inquiry" focuses on introducing children to the scientific potential of materials commonly found in early childhood classrooms. "There are always building blocks in the classroom, there’s always the outdoors, and there’s always water," says Karen Worth, a senior scientist at the EDC. "Science can truly become the foundation of early childhood classrooms." The issue, she explains, is that many preschool teachers don’t go beyond isolated science activities. Simply having a "science table" doesn’t encourage children to delve deeper, according to Worth. "They are capable of much more cognitively." Instead of only building block towers, children using the program should be introduced to concepts of balance and equilibrium, recommends Worth. She also suggests that children should document their creations through photographs and drawings to observe the changes over time.

"Our goal is to enhance teachers’ vocabulary and improve the language they use with the children," says Adam Rosen, an early childhood specialist at the EDC. The original objective of the EDC was to develop science standards for preschoolers, similar to the process undertaken for other subjects in early education. However, the organization later decided that it would be more appropriate for a national organization to handle this task. As a result, the EDC will publish a book demonstrating how preschool teachers can adapt the K-12 national science standards developed by the National Academy of Sciences. A science-based approach to early childhood education extends beyond center- and school-based programs. The Vermont Center for the Book, a nonprofit organization that promotes learning through books, is training family child-care providers in Vermont and Philadelphia on integrating scientific concepts and experiences into book discussions. "We’re improving the teachers’ vocabulary, and we’re improving the language that they use with the children," says Rosen. He adds that many teachers find it empowering. While the center also trains preschool teachers, Rosen states that home-based providers are often able to quickly adapt their practices. In another family-literacy project called "Mother Goose Asks Why?" run by the Vermont Center, parents of young children read books that present scientific ideas and work with related materials, similar to French’s ZipKits.

Jo Anna Vasquez, a science education consultant and past president of the National Science Teachers Association, states that although French’s research focuses on the literacy benefits of a science-based program, early exposure to scientific concepts can help children build the foundational knowledge they will need in elementary school. "They are building a foundation for those process skills and observation skills," says Vasquez. "It’s about learning to ask the right questions." American children generally perform well in science up until the 4th grade. Results from the most recent National Assessment of Educational Progress science test showed that 66 percent of 4th graders scored above the "basic" level, and 29 percent performed above the "proficient" level. Additionally, 4th graders in the United States were ranked among the best in the world in the 1995 Third International Mathematics and Science Study. However, as American children grow older, their science skills decline significantly compared to their international peers. This is why experts believe that encouraging children to think and talk about science in preschool can establish a strong foundation for future success in the subject. To achieve this, experts emphasize the importance of training teachers to regularly incorporate science into early childhood education.

Your assignment is to rephrase the entire content using improved vocabulary and ensure its uniqueness with natural language. The resulting text should be in English. Here is the original text to be rephrased:

Original Text:


"The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog."

The sentence above is a famous example often used to showcase all the letters of the English alphabet in a single sentence. It is a pangram, a sentence that contains every letter of the alphabet at least once. The purpose of such sentences is to demonstrate the legibility and typographic qualities of different typefaces and fonts.

This particular sentence is constructed in a way that efficiently utilizes the available letters to form words and convey a coherent meaning. The adjective "quick" describes the speed of the action performed by the subject, the noun "fox," while the adjective "lazy" characterizes the dog’s lack of energy or motivation. By using a common and relatable scenario of a fox jumping over a dog, the sentence creates an engaging and vivid mental image for the readers.

This well-known sentence has been widely adopted and accepted by English language enthusiasts and typographers. It continues to serve as a valuable tool in typography and is often used as a practical example for various language-related purposes.


Rephrased Text:


"The speedy brown fox leaps over the indolent canine."

The sentence provided above exemplifies the complete set of English alphabet letters, and it is frequently utilized to showcase this feature. Referred to as a pangram, it is a sentence that encompasses all letters of the alphabet at least once. The purpose behind such sentences is to exhibit the readability and typographical qualities of diverse fonts and typefaces.

This specific sentence has been skillfully constructed to efficiently utilize the available letters and convey a coherent meaning. The adjective "speedy" describes the swiftness of the fox, which acts as the subject in this sentence’s context. Furthermore, the adjective "indolent" characterizes the lack of energy or motivation displayed by the dog. By employing a common and easily relatable scenario of a fox leaping over a dog, the sentence effectively creates a captivating and vivid mental image for the readers.

This well-known sentence has been widely embraced and recognized by English language enthusiasts and typographers. It continues to fulfill its purpose as a valuable tool in the field of typography, frequently used as a practical example for various language-related endeavors.

Need A Sub? ‘Temp’ Agency Ready To Serve

The superintendent of schools in Gulfport, Mississippi, became frustrated with the difficulty of finding substitute teachers and approached the local manager of a temporary-staffing agency about supplying them. The manager, who had never considered it before, saw the potential in this business idea. Now, two and a half years later, Kelly Services has contracts with 12 school districts in Mississippi and Louisiana to provide substitute teachers. Additionally, the company recently announced that they will be offering this service nationwide through their 1,200 local offices. While other temporary-staffing agencies also offer substitute teachers, Kelly Services is the first to do so on a national scale.

According to Teresa Setting, the director of product management for Kelly Services, the timing is perfect for both the company and school districts, as there is currently a shortage of substitute teachers. This shortage is partly due to the strong economy opening up other job opportunities for potential substitutes, as well as an increased focus on professional development for teachers, which requires substitutes to fill in during training.

Although many districts may welcome the help from temp agencies like Kelly Services, substitute-teaching activists are concerned that relying on private suppliers may hinder their efforts to improve the status and working conditions of substitute teachers. They worry that substitutes will be seen as temporary workers rather than alternatives to teachers.

Kelly Services, a Fortune 500 company founded in 1946, provides over 750,000 temporary workers annually for various industries. With sales exceeding $4 billion last year, it is one of the largest temporary staffing agencies in the country. If temporary staffing agencies were to provide just half the nation’s substitute teachers, it would tap into a $2.5 billion industry, says Ms. Setting.

Kelly Services’ experience with substitute teachers has been successful so far. Carlos Hicks, the superintendent of Gulfport schools, proposed the idea of temporary teachers to a Kelly Services manager during a Rotary Club luncheon. With the district sometimes needing up to 100 substitutes a day, finding teachers became challenging due to a 2.5 percent unemployment rate in the area. Gulfport principals and teachers voted in favor of extending the district’s contract with Kelly Services last year, with only a few teachers voting against it because they preferred choosing their own substitutes.

While the contract with Kelly Services costs the Gulfport schools about 12 percent more for substitute teachers than when the district handled the job themselves, Mr. Hicks believes it is worth it as it allows teachers, principals, and secretaries to focus on their own duties rather than covering for each other. Judy Platt, the manager of the Gulfport office for Kelly Services, claims that her staff has filled nearly all of the 4,000 substitute teacher requests in the past nine months. The company has learned to anticipate high-demand times and actively recruits new substitutes through various channels such as newspaper ads, college postings, and the internet.

Once a contract is signed with a school district, Kelly Services expands the district’s pool of substitute teachers through recruitment methods such as newspaper ads, college postings, and networking with other organizations. The substitutes must meet the minimum standards of the school districts, undergo background checks and training, and are paid according to each district’s scale. The company’s priority is to fill every order they receive. To attract new substitutes, Kelly Services offers health benefits, vacation pay, and other employment opportunities when there are no substitute positions available.

Anticipating Future Challenges

Certain individuals doubt the ability of temporary-staffing agencies to address the issue of substitute-teacher shortages without assistance from school districts. Kathleen Lyons, a spokesperson for the National Education Association, points out that the scarcity of substitute teachers is primarily due to their low wages. Merely hiring a temporary agency will not rectify this problem. While temporary-staffing agencies are relatively new to the substitute-teaching industry in the United States, they have been widely utilized in England. This information comes from Geoffrey G. Smith, the executive director of the Substitute Teaching Institute at Utah State University in Logan. The institute collaborates with Kelly Services to develop training programs for districts and has a contract with them to provide educational training materials. Currently, Kelly Services employs a 20-minute videotape for training purposes, but Mr. Smith anticipates that a 10-hour computer-guided training session will be available to the company by next spring.

Despite Mr. Smith’s belief that temporary agencies provide a viable solution for districts, he acknowledges that they may encounter difficulties when attempting to assume a significant portion of substitute-teacher services. He predicts that more districts will consider this option due to the shortage, but it will not be an easy transition for schools to relinquish control. The attachment and sense of ownership schools have regarding this matter present a significant challenge.

N.H. Initiative Would Offer Students Credit For Out-of-Class Learning

New Hampshire Governor Chris Sununu is advocating for an education initiative that encourages learning beyond the traditional classroom setting. The Learn Everywhere program seeks to offer high school students the opportunity to earn credits for their internships and extracurricular activities. While this initiative has received support from officials, educators have expressed concerns during a hearing, cautioning that a state-operated work-based program might undermine local educational programs.

Proponents of the Learn Everywhere program argue that a government-backed initiative would particularly assist students residing in school districts lacking the means to establish their own educational programs.

ISTE 2015: Ed-tech Leadership, Maker Education, And Professional Learning

The country’s largest conference focused on education technology is beginning this weekend, bringing together approximately 18,000 educators, vendors, and advocates for over four days of sharing classroom strategies, experimenting with gadgets, and discussing the significant policy changes that are transforming digital learning in K-12 schools. One of the main themes of the conference is the importance of shared responsibility in effectively integrating technology into the classroom.

Brian Lewis, CEO of the International Society for Technology in Education, the organization hosting the conference, expressed his excitement about the increased emphasis on approaching technology integration as a team effort. He believes that everyone has a role to play in utilizing technology to drive learning. This viewpoint is demonstrated through the conference’s collaboration with the U.S. Department of Education’s "Future Ready" initiative, which aims to facilitate closer collaboration between school and district officials in articulating and implementing a vision for effective technology use in the classroom. Richard Culatta, the director of the Department of Education’s Office of Educational Technology, will be participating in a panel discussion about the initiative.

Providing better training for teachers and administrators is another important theme of the conference, as well as exploring the "maker movement." Over 50 sessions will cover the strategies, tools, and philosophy behind the popular hands-on, exploration-based maker education approach.

These issues are at the forefront of the education technology field. Despite the widespread adoption of digital devices and content in schools, educators still face challenges in making informed decisions about technology investments and transforming the teaching and learning process in the classroom.

Philadelphia is hosting this year’s conference, with support from the highly regarded Science Leadership Academy. This magnet high school has gained national attention for its efforts to develop and implement a project-based, inquiry-driven model of technology use in schools. On Saturday, students from the Science Leadership Academy will help facilitate a "town hall" discussion featuring education leaders such as S. Dallas Dance, superintendent of the Baltimore County Public Schools.

New to the conference this year are a series of debates, including one on "coding in the curriculum" to be moderated by Michele Molnar of Education Week’s Marketplace K-12 blog. Michele, along with myself and Ed Week associate editor Sean Cavanagh, will be live-tweeting and live-blogging from the event. Additionally, there will be an open conversation with the ISTE board on Monday morning to discuss the "next big things" in education technology. All attendees will have the opportunity to contribute their thoughts.

Among the speakers at the conference is Nancy Weinstein, founder and CEO of the ed-tech startup Mindprint Learning. The company utilizes an online platform and cognitive assessments developed by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania to provide parents and teachers with detailed profiles of how children learn. Weinstein highlighted the fact that while special needs students receive this type of assessment, the remaining 90 percent do not unless their parents pay for it outside of the school system. Mindprint Learning’s model reflects two emerging trends in the ed-tech industry: the expansion of personalized learning to include non-academic factors, and the push to link ed-tech products with rigorous research on how students learn, not just what they learn.

As always, industry will have a significant presence at the conference. If you haven’t attended before, you can get a taste of what to expect by reading about last year’s massive vendor floor. Furthermore, be prepared for a plethora of ed-tech jargon at this year’s event. We invite attendees to play Ed-Tech Jargon Bingo with us. If you’re participating in ISTE, tweet a jargon term you come across along with your thoughts using the hashtag #edtechjargon. Find out more about this collaborative project here.

ISTE 2015 begins on Saturday and runs until Wednesday.

Your assignment is to rephrase the entire text using more refined language and ensuring uniqueness while maintaining a natural tone. The resulting output should be presented in English. Here is the text to be rewritten:


Your task is to rewrite the entire text in better words and make it unique with natural language. All output shall be in English. The text to rewrite it is this:


Your objective is to paraphrase the complete text utilizing more sophisticated vocabulary and ensuring originality while preserving a natural flow. The desired outcome should be delivered in the English language. The provided text necessitates rewriting and is as follows:


High Court To Review School Board Redistricting Case

The U.S. Supreme Court is set to make a decision on an important matter under the Voting Rights Act of 1965, using a redistricting case involving a Louisiana school board. The issue at hand is whether voting districts that are drawn with bias can be rejected, even if they do not disadvantage minority voters more than before. This will be the second time that the high court reviews the redistricting of the Bossier Parish school board, which in 1992 had never elected a black member. However, since then, three African-Americans have been elected to the board.

The Bossier Parish school district, which has 19,000 students and is located in northwestern Louisiana, falls under Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act. This means that any changes in voting procedures, including redistricting plans, must be approved by the Department of Justice or a federal court. Section 5 covers nine Southern states and parts of several others that have a history of discriminatory voting practices. The Justice Department attempted to use its "preclearance" procedure to require the district to create two voting districts with majority-black populations for its 12-member school board. However, the board resisted, arguing that it had already received preclearance from the Justice Department for the redistricting plan used by the parish’s main governing body, known as the policy jury. The board also asserted that their plan could not have negatively affected black voters because no black board members had ever been elected. In 1995, the board’s plan was approved by a special three-judge U.S. District Court in Washington.

In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled on the Bossier Parish case in Reno v. Bossier Parish School Board. The court ruled 7-2 that the Justice Department cannot deny approval of voting changes in jurisdictions covered by Section 5 on the basis of whether the changes violate Section 2, which applies nationwide and prohibits any practices that would weaken minority voting power. Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, writing for the majority, stated that the two sections of the voting-rights law were meant to address different issues and impose different obligations on the states. The court found that the federal district court had not properly considered whether the Bossier school board had enacted its 1992 plan with discriminatory intent, and thus sent the case back to the district court. The district court once again approved the school board’s plan, stating that the board had legitimate reasons for adopting it. The Justice Department, along with the local branch of the NAACP, appealed once again to the Supreme Court, arguing that the school board had adopted the redistricting plan to prevent any advancements in the political position of black individuals. The Justice Department urged the court to determine whether a redistricting plan in a jurisdiction covered by Section 5 can be denied if it was enacted with discriminatory intent, even if it does not harm minorities more than before.

On January 22, the justices accepted the appeal in Reno v. Bossier Parish School Board (Case No. 98-405). The Bossier school board attempted to argue against the appeal, noting that under the current voting lines with no majority-black districts, three African-Americans have been elected to the board, including one from a district that is only 21 percent black. The board argued that requiring two majority-black voting districts would be nonsensical and that redistricting would make it more difficult for a third black candidate to be elected. The case is set to be argued in April, with a decision expected by early summer.

In a separate ruling last week, the Supreme Court rejected the use of statistical-sampling methods in the 2000 U.S. Census for the purpose of apportioning representation in the U.S. House. However, the court stated in its 5-4 ruling in Department of Commerce v. U.S. House of Representatives (No. 98-404) that the federal Census Act of 1976 allows for, and may require, the use of such sampling for other purposes.

Census figures are crucial for allocating various federal funds to the states, including the distribution of Title I compensatory education funds.

Department Of Education To Publish State High School Completion Rates

The U.S. Department of Education plans to release a standardized graduation rate for each state in order to provide a clearer understanding of how successful states are in ensuring that students complete high school. The Deputy Secretary of Education, Raymond J. Simon, shared this information with state policymakers during a conference held by the Education Commission of the States. The department will calculate each state’s graduation rate by dividing the number of high school graduates in a given year by the average number of students who entered 8th grade five years earlier, 9th grade four years earlier, and 10th grade three years earlier. This "averaged freshman graduation rate" will be published alongside the graduation rates reported by states under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. Simon explained that this new calculation closely aligns with true on-time graduation rates, making it easier to understand, more accurate, and promoting transparency in the system.

Simon also noted that the new state calculations will be reported temporarily and will serve as a common measure to assess the success of states in ensuring high school completion. States have faced criticism in recent years for publishing graduation rates that are misleading and not comparable across different states. Many states base their graduation figures on the percentage of seniors who earn their diplomas by the end of the school year, which excludes students who drop out before reaching 12th grade. Simon acknowledged that many states lack the necessary data systems to provide more precise measures of their high school graduation rates. However, the federal government will be able to calculate the "averaged freshman graduation rate" using enrollment and other data already collected by the National Center for Education Statistics.

In other news, the National Governors Association revealed the first 10 states to receive grants of up to $2 million each under a program aimed at improving graduation and college-readiness rates. These grants, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and other philanthropies, will be utilized for various purposes, such as enhancing state academic standards, aligning curricula and assessments with college entrance requirements, raising awareness about the need for high school reform, expanding science, math, and technology education, and implementing data collection and analysis systems. The 10 states awarded the grants include Arkansas, Delaware, Indiana, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Rhode Island, and Virginia.

Additionally, the Education Department has granted Washington state permission to factor in students who take more than four years to graduate when determining adequate yearly progress under the No Child Left Behind law. Washington state will continue to publish a graduation rate based on the percentage of students who earn their diploma in four years but will now have the flexibility to include the extended time period for accountability purposes. The intention behind this change is to create incentives for dropouts to return to school. While other states have already received permission to include students with limited English proficiency or disabilities who take more than four years to graduate in their graduation rates, Washington state’s provision could potentially apply to a wider range of students.

Healthy School Meals Win Over Secondary Pupils

Charters school’s lunch menu could easily fit in with those of an upscale café or a decent restaurant. The main course options such as lamb curry, mushroom risotto, courgette, and red onion flan, and pumpkin and butterbean cobbler, followed by desserts such as flapjacks, banana cake, and wholemeal shortbread all cost only £2. This appealing and nutritious lunch menu has increased the number of students opting for hot lunch from less than half in 2006 to 60-70% today at the 1,640-pupil school in Ascot, Berkshire.

Vanessa Stroud, the business manager at the school, attributes the rise in popularity to the high-quality menu and the schools super-healthy food standards. Cater Link, which provides around 900 meals daily at Charters, has been lauded for their commitment to using fresh food, which is prepared daily in the school’s kitchen. Other schools in the Windsor and Maidenhead borough have decided to appoint Cater Link as their provider of lunch as well.

Improvements in the dining area and the organization of the lunchtime have also been significant factors in the increase of students choosing hot lunch. In 2004, the school introduced staggered lunch breaks to accommodate the number of pupils. Now, three half-hour slots for lunch start at 11 am, allowing room for three different groups to eat at different times to avoid overcrowding. Charters spent £50,000 to upgrade the canteen and kitchen area, including new folding tables, realigning the seating layout, and new ovens that have reduced preparation time. This summer, the dining room and kitchen will receive new floors.

The lunch menu now includes fruit, vegetables, or salad. Junk food is no longer offered, and there are minimum standards for carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and limits on levels of fats, salt, sugar, and saturated fat. The school vending machines no longer stock junk food.

The School Food Trust oversees the transition from unhealthy food to healthy meals and helps schools tackle issues that deter pupils from eating in the canteen, such as cramped dining areas, frustrating queueing systems, and outdated payment systems. The chief executive of the School Food Trust warns that investments made since 2005 in improving school food could go in the bin unless schools also ensure appealing environments for children. Increases in take-up across England have been noted, yet the percentage of pupils choosing school meals is still only 41.4% at primary schools and 35.8% at secondaries.

Rees, a school food advisor, suggests various ways to encourage students who typically bring packed lunches or visit nearby takeaways to try the school canteen instead. This includes taster sessions with the school cook, where students can watch the preparation of dishes and then sample them. Rees also recommends introducing cashless Swipecard payment systems to speed up queuing times and allow students to spend more time with their friends. However, he is concerned that some schools are not doing enough to increase the uptake of school meals, and urges them to realise the benefits of providing tasty, nutritious and affordable food. Rees believes that school dining rooms should aim to rival high-street food chains like Pizza Express, with comfortable seating, clean facilities, fresh food and efficient service, making lunchtime an enjoyable and fun part of the educational experience.

However, government policies, such as the scrapping of the extension of free school meals to low-income working families and pilot projects exploring the practicalities of free school meals, pose a challenge. Fortunately, some councils, such as Islington, have taken matters into their own hands, investing in school meals and introducing smartcard systems to reduce the stigma associated with free school meals. The council believes in the value of school meals and has seen a big increase in uptake as a result of its actions. The future of school meals remains uncertain, as the Department for Education is undertaking a review of school food policy, causing concern among campaigners for school food.

According to Rees, there is currently a lack of answers on his end. He emphasizes that school food is a crucial component of education that falls within the realm of welfare. The available evidence lends support to the existing minimal standards, rendering any proposed alterations questionable. Rees asserts the belief that Department for Education officials are cognizant of the benefits associated with school food. Everyone involved in the education system, including instructors, students, and parents, hopes that Rees’s optimistic perspective is founded on fact.

What Became Of The Bog-standard Comprehensive?

Tony Blair famously declared the beginning of the "post-comprehensive era" a decade ago, calling for diversity in the mission and ethos of schools. The vast majority of comprehensives did follow Blair’s recommendation, with 96.6% of secondaries now specialist schools. However, there are still around 80 "bog-standard" comprehensives that have not conformed to this trend. While the term "bog-standard" is seen as offensive by many, it is important to note that in other high-performing countries like Finland, uniformity in schools is seen as a positive thing. Critics argue that the proliferation of different types of schools in England is due to a desire for "market-place differentiation" by parents who want the best for their children. However, some experts argue that sticking with the bog-standard comprehensive system would have been better, as league tables and consumer choice actually create dissatisfaction among parents. Wales, which has a system that is 99.5% comprehensive, does not use league tables, specialist schools or academies. While it is currently struggling to produce good results, experts believe that improvements will come from within the comprehensive system. Community links are seen as vital to the success of schools, with one headteacher noting that every town wants to support its local school.

Twyford School goes beyond its local community to cast its nets wide in search of students. It caters to pupils from seven different authorities and 70 feeder schools. Majority of its students have shown commitment to their faith by providing evidence of attendance at a worship place from the age of six, and few of them qualify for free meals.

While acknowledging that the school has a larger than average number of students that would have gone to grammar schools in the past, head teacher Alice Hudson insists that Twyford is, in fact, a comprehensive school. She says that institutions that prioritize academic achievement tend to attract more capable students.

The school’s unique features, including its faith status and specializations, would have made it a great comprehensive school according to former Prime Minister Tony Blair. However, his opponents at the time felt that his strategy would result in a two-tier education system, which proved to be accurate in the end. Former deputy Labour leader Roy Hattersley warned Blair about the inherent dangers of this system, but his calls went unheeded. Today, schools still operate within the market economy of education, leaving those at the bottom disaffected and disadvantaged.

Currently, the Labour Party is pledging to bridge the divide and promote comprehensive ideals. Education spokesperson Andy Burnham, who himself attended a comprehensive school, lays the blame for the current situation at the feet of the government. He cites the government’s policies as creating competition amongst schools and segregating the education system, ignoring the lessons of the "post-comprehensive" era of Tony Blair’s leadership. It remains to be seen if these new promises will be effective in reversing the damage caused over the past decade.

Is It A Canaletto Or A Bellotto? Don’t Ask An Art Historian …

According to Brian Allen, a leading expert in the field, young art historians are finding it difficult to spot subtle yet crucial differences between the works of master painters with similar styles as connoisseurship is slowly dying out in academic art history. The former director of the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art and trustee of the National Portrait Gallery suggests that universities are no longer training historians to differentiate between the styles of different masters effectively. Rather, they now focus on the social history of art. Allen claims that many younger historians find it challenging to make attributional statements if faced with a questionable picture, leading to a concerning lack of knowledge and pedantic skills in the field that results in forgeries being missed. The result of this trend is a diminished number of doctoral theses being produced in pre-20th-century art, as students are opting for what he calls "easier" subject areas, such as contemporary art, which requires less in-depth knowledge.

The change to art history education started in the early 1980s when the traditional focus on scrutinising paintings began to be replaced with a social history of the subject. This shift in curricular emphasis took a stranglehold on the way history of art is taught today. The decline in connoisseurship has long concerned Allen. Twenty-five years ago, he warned that soon there would be no connoisseurs in the history of British art. Now, he believes this has almost come true, and there are hardly any connoisseurs left. Allen is worried that this education trend could lead to obscure subject areas eventually and that the decline of education extends beyond the universities to public collections. Tate, one of the UK’s prominent art institutions, has, in his opinion, lost all "real experts" on British art. Allen will deliver his thoughts on this topic at the conference on Art, Law, and Crises of Connoisseurship, organized by Art Watch UK, the London School of Economics, and the Center for Art Law (US).

Canaletto’s artwork portraying the Ducal Palace in Venice is depicted on the left. Meanwhile, his nephew and assistant Bernardo Bellotto rendered a comparable perspective of a Venetian view, which is exhibited on the right.